Bordeaux is a city in southwestern France, the capital of the R é gion Nouvelle Aquitaine region, and also the capital of the Gironde department (33 provinces). Bordeaux is an important industrial and commercial city in southwestern France, as well as the political, economic, cultural, transportation, and educational center of the region.
Bordeaux was once the capital of the former French province of Guienne and historically belonged to the Gascony region. Bordeaux is a military and aviation research and manufacturing center in Europe, as well as the core of France’s strategic nuclear bomb research and physical experiments. It has many high-end technological institutions such as the Atomic Energy Research Center and the Megafocus Laser Program. The Bordeaux region is rich in tourism resources, with many beautifully preserved medieval castles. Bordeaux is also known as the World Wine Center, and every two years, the Bordeaux Wine Industry Association holds a grand international wine exhibition – Vinexpo.

Historical evolution
Bordeaux was established by the Celts around 300 BC and is known as “Burdigala”. Its meaning is to live in low-lying areas. This name indicates the geographical situation of Bordeaux. With the evolution of history, “Burdigala” gradually became “Bordigala”, “Bordeale”, “Bord è u”, and finally became “Bordeaux” (Bordeaux). In 60 BC, Bordeaux was ruled by the Romans. At that time, it was already a bustling port called Budigara. There are particularly many connections with Spain and Britain. During the imperial period, this place was the capital of the province of Aquitaine, which spanned from the Pyrenees to the Loire River. Emperor Diocletian, due to its vastness, divided the province into three parts. Scholar Desimus Magnus Osonius grew up in the city and described it as square with walls surrounding it, making it the main educational center of Gaul. After the decline of the Roman Empire, there was a period of political turmoil around Bordeaux. In 732, Abdul Rahman’s army looted Bordeaux after defeating the Duke of Erd. Subsequently, Bordeaux was once again visited by pirates. It was not until the early 10th century that the dukes of Aquitaine established it as a duchy, and the situation in the area returned to stability.

Eleanor of Aquitaine inherited the duchy and married Count Henry of the Plantagenet dynasty. In 1154, her husband inherited the English throne and became Henry II, making Bordeaux a territory of England. It was not until the Hundred Years War that the Black Prince Edward used it as his base for 20 years and was respected by the locals. His son, King Richard II of England, was also born here. During the reign of England, the area enjoyed great freedom. Starting from 1235, the mayor was elected, and trade between the city and various ports in England flourished. The surrounding towns of Saint Emilion and Liberna also joined the Bordeaux led alliance. After the French defeated the British in the Battle of Castillon in 1453, the city was incorporated into France. The 17th century was a period of turmoil, due to the religious war in France, the citizens of the city were massacred and trade declined. In the 18th century, the city was revived through triangular trade, transporting weapons and wine to Africa in exchange for slave trade to the West Indies, bringing back sugar and coffee. Many of the city center’s buildings were built from that period onwards.
The Gironde Party was established here during the French Revolution, but it suffered severe setbacks during the period of terror. During the Napoleonic Wars, due to the British blockade, Bordeaux was in a difficult situation. In 1814, he declared his support for the Bourbon family, prompting Louis XVIII to appoint his grandson as the Duke of Bordeaux. With the laying of railways, port facilities have greatly improved, trade with western Africa and South America has increased, and cities have become more prosperous. During the Franco Prussian War in 1870, due to the German army approaching Tours, the French government relocated its capital to Bordeaux for the first time. After the outbreak of World War I, in August 1914, the German army approached Paris, and the French government relocated its capital to Bordeaux for the second time. After the outbreak of World War II, in June 1940, the German army occupied Paris, and the French government first moved to Tours, and then to Bordeaux for the third time. The minority led by Prime Minister Paul Renault called for a decisive battle and applied for emergency aid from Britain and the United States. His supporters included Charles de Gaulle and Mundell, but they were overthrown within a few days. Bordeaux surrendered after being bombed by the German army, and later suffered Allied bombing due to becoming a German submarine and air base. In August 1944, the city was mainly liberated by the French army. After 1945, the city continuously expanded into many new suburbs. In 1801, the city had only 90000 people, compared to 250000 in 1901 and over 900000 in 2001.
It was the birthplace of the Girondists of the French Revolution and also the hometown of outstanding figures such as Montesquieu and Montaigne.

Administrative division
Bordeaux is a commune and capital of the Gironde department in France, as well as the capital of the R é gion Aquitaine Potou Charente Limousin region.
The current mayor of Bordeaux is Nicolas Florian.
In France, there are only two basic levels of legal administrative divisions: D é department and Commune. On this basis, provinces can freely form “R é gions” between each other, while municipalities can form relatively stable “Arrondissements” [2] and “Cantons”, and new combinations can be made across counties or even provinces to form “intercommunaut é”, “Unit é Urban”, “Air Urban”, and “Zone d’Emploi”. However, except for provinces and municipalities, other administrative levels are not clearly defined and specified in the French Constitution, but these administrative regions can exercise certain management, legislative, administrative, and fiscal powers according to their own needs.
Bordeaux is the administrative center (Chef lieu) of the Arrondissement de Bordeaux region. According to the latest administrative division plan in France in 2015, the Bordeaux region governs a total of 17 complete counties, as well as some municipalities in 4 other counties, totaling 82 municipalities with a total population of 1247977 people (2017 data) and a total area of 1522 square kilometers.
It is worth noting that in France, the division of “regions” and “counties” is mainly for voting or elections and does not have much practical role, while daily municipal construction and management are mainly coordinated by “regions”, “provinces” or “municipalities”.

Bordeaux is a city and port in southwestern France. Located downstream of the Garonne River, 98 kilometers from the Atlantic Ocean. In 1870, 1914, and 1940, it was the seat of the French government.
Bordeaux is the capital of the Aquitaine region and Gironde department in southwestern France, and is a strategic location along the Atlantic coast of Europe. Bordeaux Port is the closest port in France connecting West Africa and the American continent, and is a railway hub in southwestern Europe. The Aquitaine region has superior natural conditions that are conducive to crop growth. Agricultural production ranks third in the country, corn production ranks first in the European Union, and foie gras production and processing rank first in the world. There are 860 export enterprises in Gironde Province, with an annual trade surplus of 12.7 billion francs, ranking seventh in exports nationwide.
Bordeaux is located on the south bank of the Garonne River and is a traditional French city. Its unique natural environment is unparalleled in France. The busy port trade has added many opportunities for communication with the outside world, making the people here prosperous.
Although it is a harbor at the mouth of the river, it is protected by the narrow and several tens of kilometers of the Gironde River, avoiding direct impact from the ocean. The harbor is calm and vast, with both the infinite expansion of the ocean and the vast hinterland of plain cities.
Bordeaux is located in a typical temperate marine climate zone, warm and humid throughout the year, with the most suitable climate for grape growth. The year-round sunshine has allowed Bordeaux to form large vineyards, and wine is renowned worldwide. The most famous is Bordeaux wine.
Victor Hugo said, “This is a unique city, primitive, perhaps still unique. By integrating the cities of Versailles and Antwerp together, you have obtained Bordeaux.”
The soil in the production area includes clayey limestone, clay, sandy soil, and limestone. Among them, the Pyr é n é es mountain area is composed of gravel soil.


  1. Goose liver is a famous French delicacy with high protein content, making it highly nutritious.
  2. Bordeaux is the world’s largest wine town, and the wine produced here is the most famous. Bordeaux has the largest grape cultivation area among the three major wine producing regions in France; In the Bordeaux region alone, there are over 9000 wineries and wineries. Bordeaux produces 700 million bottles of wine annually. AOC wine production accounts for 25% of France’s AOC wine production, with 89% being red wine, 11% being dry white wine and sweet white wine, with over 50 varieties and over 300 brands.
    Every wine estate in Bordeaux has a different story. The vast majority of wine is produced on a family based estate, which has vineyards and wine cellars. The so-called estate wine refers to wine that is produced in the estate throughout the entire process of grape growth, harvest, fermentation, maturation, and bottling of wine.


  1. Aviation
    Bordeaux Miragnac is the airport of Bordeaux, which is 12 kilometers west of the city. There are direct flights to Paris, Strasbourg, Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, etc. You can take a bus from the airport to the city center, which only takes about 45 minutes by car.
  2. Railway
    Bordeaux is 579 kilometers away from Paris, from Montparnase station in Paris to St Janes Station, you can take the TGV high-speed train, which runs every 30 minutes and takes 3 hours to reach. The journey from St. Jean Station to the city center’s Comedy Square requires taking the C-line light rail and transferring to the A-line hotel de ville at Pont Pierre. The entire journey takes about 15 minutes.
    For details, please refer to the entry: Bordeaux Saint Jean station.
  3. Highways
    The national roads starting from or passing through Bordeaux are A10, A63, A630 and A62, which respectively go to Paris (579 km), Lyon (550 km), Nantes (326 km), Strasbourg (922 km) and Toulouse (245 km), while the provincial roads, district roads and local roads are more densely ramped, mostly radiating outward from the city center.
    The roads in the old city of Bordeaux are almost entirely one-way, so be careful of signs when driving.

Grape varieties
Bordeaux legal red grape varieties:
Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot. (Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Sauvignon, and Macbeth are grape varieties used for blending.)
The three legal white grape varieties in Bordeaux:
Everlasting longing for each other (Sauvignon Blanc), Semillon, Miscadele.
Product features
The wines in this region mainly include dry red wine, dry white wine, semi dry white wine, light white wine, and noble rot white wine.
Five major wine producing regions
Medoc, Bohemian Marquis, Saint Emilion, Graf, and Sudes.
Famous Winery
In 1855, France was in power under Napoleon III. King III wants to take the opportunity of the Paris World Expo to promote Bordeaux wine to the world, and also wants all wines from the country to participate in the exhibition. So he asked the Bordeaux Winery Association to prepare an exhibition to introduce Bordeaux wines and classify Bordeaux wineries. This is like poking a hornet’s nest, because those wineries are all very self righteous, yet there can only be one winner. So the Bordeaux Chamber of Commerce shifted the responsibility to the official organization of wine wholesalers, Syndicat of Courtiers, and asked them to divide all wineries into 5 levels, including each red wine producer from the Girondissement. Two weeks later, Syndicat of Courtiers presented their classification, including 58 wineries, 1 super first, 5 first, 12 second, 14 third, 11 fourth, and 17 fifth. The super first tier wineries are Igan Winery, and the first tier wineries are Lafite, Latour, Margaux, Hongyan Rong, and Mutong.
Almost all Bordeaux wineries come from Medoc, with the exception of Ch â teau Rouge, which comes from the Graf region. Other wine regions were not included, and all the selected wineries were concentrated on the left bank of Bordeaux. Cheval Blanc, which was already famous in the 18th century, was also not included on the right bank, indicating that this classification system had significant limitations. Within this classification system, wineries of the same level also have their own order, for example, Mouton Rothschild is the top winery in the second tier. But this approach has attracted a lot of criticism. In September 1855, the Syndicat of Courtiers sent a letter to the Bordeaux Winery Association, stating that there was no hierarchy within the same class. The association then revised the list and arranged the wines in alphabetical order within the unified class wineries to quell this matter. Since 1855, there have been many changes in the name, owner, vineyard, and even the quality of the wine produced by the winery. There are 61 wineries listed in the classification system within the park. Of course, even if the winery changes its name and ownership, if it has been a grade estate in history, it will still maintain its position as a grade estate. An important change was in 1973, with the continuous efforts of Baron Philippe Rothschild, Mutong was upgraded from a second tier winery to a first tier winery, forming the well-known “Six Famous Wineries”.
Afterwards, the Graf and Saint Emilion regions also underwent winery classification in the mid-20th century, but were not divided into five levels like the Medoc region. All these wineries that have entered the winery classification are called “Grand Cru Classes”, and the words “Grand Cru Classe” can be seen on the wine label.
French wine has a strict quality supervision system. Its levels include: Ranked Famous Winery, Star Winery, Statutory Production Area Winery, Quasi Statutory Production Area Winery, Excellent Meal Winery, and Daily Meal Winery. Among French wines, the most culturally rich and legendary one is undoubtedly the “Grand Prix”.

Historical background
Bordeaux is located in the southwest of France, with a unique climate and geographical conditions. Facing the Atlantic Ocean to the west, the Gironde River flows slowly through the area, and the temperate marine climate makes the weather in the production area always mild and smooth. The barren gravel soil, clay, and lime soil form a complex and diverse geological structure, allowing Bordeaux to produce a rich and diverse range of wines. Bordeaux is divided in two by the Garonne River from south to north, but they are not accustomed to dividing it into east and west banks. Instead, they divide it into left and right banks based on their geographical location in both directions. The left bank production area is mainly composed of two major production areas, Medoc and Graf, while the famous production areas on the right bank mainly include Pomeranian and Saint Emilion.

In the 18~19th century, with the development of wine trade, the city of Bordeaux entered a golden age of development, and grapes and wine began to occupy an important position in the economy. On many remaining buildings, clusters of grape stone carvings can still be seen, telling people about the glory of the past. During this period, the production of wine achieved unprecedented development, especially with the first wine rating in 1855, Louis Pasteur’s discovery of the principle of alcohol fermentation in 1857, and the establishment of the Bordeaux Wine Academy by Pasteur’s assistant, all of which greatly promoted the development of wine production.
Bordeaux has numerous grape varieties, most of which are internationally renowned. Due to the climate, it is difficult to produce a balanced and harmonious wine using a single variety in most areas of Bordeaux. Therefore, local winemakers usually have to mix different varieties, learn from each other’s strengths and weaknesses, and create rich and delicious wines. There are six legal red grape varieties in Bordeaux, namely Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Cabernet Franc, Verdot, Jamena and Malbec, and three legal white grape varieties, including everlasting longing for each other, Semillon and Miscadet.
In the Bordeaux region, in addition to the legal production area standards designated by the Place of Origin Naming Authority, there are also some rating systems for wineries in different legal production areas, including the 1855 Bordeaux Winery Rating, 1953 Graff Rating, 1955 Saint Emilion Rating, and Star Estate Rating. There are 61 famous villages in the production area.
Medoc is a representative origin of Bordeaux wine, and some even call it “Versailles in Wine”. It is located on the left bank of the Gironde River in Bordeaux, near the mouth of the sea, and is the most representative sub region of Bordeaux wine style, and can also be said to be the most important region. This place produces the world’s highest quality wine, and only produces red wine.
The wine produced in the Bordeaux region has a smooth and elegant taste, as if it is a femininity with a myriad of charm and tenderness, hence it is known as the “queen of wine”.

Bordeaux, known as “Little Paris”, not only tastes fine wine and world-renowned caviar, but also has many high-end products. Most of the shops are concentrated in the area where the Avenues of Anders, George Clermont, and Dohenig intersect, where famous French brands such as Louis Vuitton, Chanel, Dior, and so on can be seen everywhere. Therefore, it is also known as the “Golden Triangle” by the Bordeaux people.
The restaurants in the city are concentrated around Gambetta Square, and most of them serve fresh seafood dishes, as well as authentic local dishes cooked in Bordeaux wine. The Shapenfen Restaurant is one of the most famous restaurants in Bordeaux, where there is a pickled fish called “lamprey”, which has a strong sauce flavor and a very good taste.
If you arrive in Bordeaux at the end of June, you will catch one of the two major festivals held on the riverbank: the Wine Festival (even numbered years) or the River Festival (odd numbered years). According to the different festivals, you can taste different Bordeaux wines and seafood from the Atlantic, but no matter which festival, you can still enjoy concerts, dances, and the Garonne sailing competition.
Cultural heritage
Bordeaux is a city of history and art, with the largest historical and artistic sanctuary in France (150 hectares). In order to protect this area, a ground power supply system was specially used during the construction of trams. On June 28, 2007, Bordeaux was designated as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO.
University City
Bordeaux has the largest university city in Europe, with four universities dedicated to natural sciences (University of Bordeaux I), medical biology (University of Bordeaux II), literature (University of Bordeaux III), and politics and law (University of Bordeaux IV). The Second University of Bordeaux is located in the city center and the largest hospital district in southwestern France, while the other three universities were redeployed to the small town of PESSAC next to Bordeaux in the 1960s. Due to its status as the world’s most famous wine producing region, some key universities in Bordeaux offer majors in red wine trade. The second largest university in Bordeaux is a public university in France that specializes in winemaking and issues a national diploma in winemaking after graduation.
Left and right banks
The Gironde River, Garonne River, and Dordogne River divide Bordeaux into three parts: left bank, right bank, and between the two seas. The Gironde River is located at the mouth of the Atlantic Ocean, with two upstream tributaries being the Dordogne River to the north and the Garonne River to the south. [3] The area southwest of the Gironde River and the Garonne River is called the “left bank”, the northeast of the Gironde River and the Dordogne River is called the “right bank”, and the area between the Garonne River and the Dordogne River is called the “between the two seas”.
The grape producing areas on the left bank are further divided into two regions: Medoc and Graves. Medoc is divided into six villages from north to south, including Saint Estev, Boyak, Saint Julian, and Margo. Among them, Boyak, Margo, Saint Yulian, and Saint Estef are the towns of famous wineries, with over 80% of them located in these four villages. Aoxin Winery and White Horse Winery are located on the right bank in Saint Emilion, while Bertus Winery is located in Pomeranian.
The legal red grape varieties in Bordeaux include Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Cabernet Sauvignon, Verdot, Malbec, and Carmenere; Main legal white grape varieties: Semillon, everlasting longing for each other and Miscadet. The most important red grape varieties on the left bank are Cabernet Sauvignon, while the most important red grape varieties on the right bank are Merlot and Cabernet Franc.
Bordeaux is both a city and a name for wine, and is currently the largest producer of fine wines in France and is considered a famous wine region. Located in the southwestern region of France, along the Garonne, Dordogne, and Gironde rivers. The area is vast, with a length of 85 miles from east to west and over 70 miles from north to south. It has nearly 110220 hectares of vineyards and an average annual production of about 700 million bottles of wine. Bordeaux, almost all Bordeaux red wines are made by mixing different grape varieties, mainly Cabernet Sauvignon, as well as a certain proportion of Merlot and Cabernet Franc.
In Bordeaux, historical tourist attractions can be enjoyed by tourists for a whole day. The 18th century city hall, classical opera house, and ancient cathedral are all tourist attractions that must be visited by tourists.
There is a distance from Bicketwal Square to the old town area. Several roads radiating from the square extend outward, with one extending along Rue Ste Catherine Road. St. Catherine’s Road is a bustling street with affordable shops and cafes that have auctions all year round. The road is long and it is a pedestrian area. Continuing further down and crossing the road, you will arrive at the Place de Comedy, where there is the Grand Th é atre, a grand theater modeled after the Paris National Opera House. Across the street is the Bordeaux Wine House, where you can get information about Bordeaux wines. L’Ecole Du Vin, a wine school under the Bordeaux Wine Market Association (CIVB), also offers hours to days of Bordeaux wine courses for wine travelers interested in learning grapes. There are also multiple wine region tourist routes available for wine tasters to visit simultaneously. Besides the wine pilgrimage, Saint Emile, the most famous ancient pilgrimage city in Bordeaux, should never be missed. Many travelers fall in love with the strong ancient style of ancient streets, stone slabs, and paths.

Product protection
Foreign alcoholic beverages that have been protected by geographical indication products in China, following Cognac in 2009, Scotch Whisky in 2010, Napa Valley (Wines) in 2012, Champagne in 2013, and Tequila in 2014, the General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine approved the implementation of geographical indication product protection for Bordeaux in 2015. On June 19, the General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine officially announced the approval of geographical indication product protection for Bordeaux. Announcement on the Implementation of Geographical Indication Product Protection (2015 No. 75). The announcement states: “Recommended by the French Ministry of Agriculture, Food, Fisheries, Rural Affairs and Land Improvement, the Bordeaux Wine Industry Committee of France has applied to our bureau for the protection of Bordeaux’s geographical indication products within the territory of the People’s Republic of China. Referring to the” Regulations on the Protection of Geographical Indication Products “, the General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine has organized expert technical review and passed the review. It is now approved to implement geographical indication product protection for Bordeaux within the territory of the People’s Republic of China from today on.”
City Honors
On December 26, 2019, it ranked 428th on the 2019 Global Cities 500 list.
In April 2020, it was selected for the “2020 Global Summer Resort Cities List”.