Ireland (Irish: Eirinn) is located on the south-central island of Ireland in Western Europe. It is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the west, Northern Ireland to the northeast, and the Island of Great Britain across the Irish Sea to the east. The coastline is 3,169 km long. Temperate maritime climate. The average temperature is 3.2 ° C in February and 16.2 ° C in August, covering an area of 70,000 square kilometers. The country is divided into 26 counties, three county cities and two city counties, the capital of which is Dublin. As of May 2023, Ireland has a population of 5.15 million.
The Irish belong to the Celtic people and are the descendants of the first generation inhabitants of the European continent. They were invaded by England in 1169 and the British King became the King of Ireland in 1541. In 1916, Dublin broke out the Easter Uprising against the rule of the British Empire. On December 6, 1921, the two sides signed the Anglo-Irish Treaty. The British were forced to allow the 26 counties in the south of Ireland to form the Irish Free State, but the six counties in the north remained part of the United Kingdom, becoming Northern Ireland. [1] Ireland declared itself a republic and became independent in 1937, but remained part of the Commonwealth, leaving the Commonwealth on December 21, 1948, and becoming permanently neutral by constitution on April 18, 1949. Britain recognized Irish independence.

Regional location
Ireland is located in the south of the island of Ireland in the west of Europe, west of the Atlantic Ocean, northeast and the United Kingdom of Northern Ireland border, east across the Irish Sea and the United Kingdom, the national area of 70,000 square kilometers.
The central part of Ireland is plain, lakes and swamps, with an average elevation of about 100 meters. The north, northwest and south are plateaus and mountains. The central part is hilly and plain, and the coastal area is mostly upland; The longest river, Abha na Sionainne, is over 370 km long, and the largest lake is Loch Koilib.
The island of Ireland is 475 kilometers long from north to south and 275 kilometers wide from east to west, with an area of 84,000 square kilometers, of which five-sixth belongs to the Republic of Ireland. Ireland is made up of a central plain and a ring of coastal mountains, which are shaped like a basin with steep edges, high in the north and low in the middle; The central plain accounts for more than half of the total area of the country, 30 to 120 meters above sea level, there are 200 to 300 meters above sea level of low hills, this area is covered by lush forests, green fields, is an ideal grassland pasture.
The eastern and northern mountains are 700-900 meters above sea level, and the southern mountains are 700-1000 meters above sea level; The cliffs along the southwest coast are steep and rocky. There are many caves and undercurrents in the mountains; The coastal mountains have been eroded for a long time, and the mountains are divided into wide valleys, which is conducive to the traffic between the mainland and the coast. Ireland’s coastline is more than 3,000 kilometers long, and its eastern coast is relatively flat and lacks good natural harbours. The western and southern coastlines criss-cross, rolling and changing.
The whole island is surrounded by small hills, and the central part is relatively low, which is a lowland with rivers and lakes. The longest river is the Shannon, but the others are short. The island is divided north and south by the east-west Liffey River (an Life). West Carangtuel is the highest point in the country (1041 m above sea level). The Atlantic coast harbor twists and turns deep, many good harbors. The east coast is flatter.

Climatic characteristics
Ireland is a temperate maritime climate, the difference between the four seasons is not obvious, there is little difference in temperature across the country, mild wet winter, warm and dry summer. The average annual temperature ranges from 10 to 20 degrees Celsius, with an average of 3.2 degrees Celsius in February and 16.2 degrees Celsius in August. The average annual rainfall is 800-1200 mm, and the sunny weather accounts for about 1/5 of the whole year.

Natural resources
Ireland’s main mineral resources are natural gas, peat, copper, lead, graphite, zinc, silver, barite, gypsum, limestone, dolomite and so on.
Ireland has rich lead and zinc deposits and is the largest producer of lead and zinc in Europe. Zinc production accounts for 4.3% of the world, lead production accounts for 2% of the world, and peat is widely distributed, accounting for about 13% of the country’s area. Natural gas reserves are estimated at 38.2 billion cubic meters. It imports 70% of its energy needs.

Main division
The country is divided into 26 counties, 3 prefecture-level cities, and 2 cities and counties. The 26 counties are Carlow, Cavan, Clare, Cork, Donegal, Dun and Rathdown Laoghaire-Rathdown, Fingal, Galway, Kerry, Kildare, Kilkenny, Laois, Leitrim, Longford, Laoghaire-Rathdown. Louth, Mayo, Meath, Monaghan, Offaly, Roscommon, Sligo, South Dublin Dublin, Tipperary, Westmeath, Wexford, Wicklow. The three counties are Dublin, Cork and Galway, and the two counties are Limerick and Waterford.

Important city
Dublin (English:) Baile Atha Cliath is the capital of Ireland, located at the mouth of the River Liffey in County Dublin, with a land area of more than 115 square kilometres, surrounded by hills to the south and crop plains to the west and north. The Riffee River has long been regarded as the traditional north-south divide in the region: the north is generally widely distributed among the working class, while the south is considered to be the concentration of the upper middle class.
Dublin is also a well-deserved cultural and sports center in Ireland, and almost all sports organizations are headquartered in Dublin. The most popular sports are Gaelic football, rugby and Irish cricket. Dublin is famous for its literary history and has produced many outstanding writers, but the most famous is James Joyce’s “Dubliners”, and his personal masterpiece “Ulysses” is also set in Dublin, so the main celebration of Bloomsday also originated in Dublin. The National Library of Ireland and the National Printing Museum of Ireland are the largest library and literary museums in Ireland.
As in other Irish cities, the centre of Dublin is full of pubs. The Temple Bar area south of the Riffee River is an internationally renowned nightlife area that has become a tourist hotspot.
Galway on the west coast of the island of Ireland. English: Galway; Gaillimh (Irish: Gaillimh) is the fourth largest city in Ireland, with a population of about 70,000, and is the center of Irish culture, tourism and trade. With a history of more than 500 years, Galway is a perfect combination of tradition and modernity, as one of the fastest growing cities in Europe, she has the reputation of Ireland’s “cultural capital” and “Capital of the West”. Keats once called Galway “the Venice of the West”, with its superior geographical location and natural environment, suitable for outdoor activities such as golf, fishing, horse riding, sailing and so on. Galway has three universities and a number of private schools, and 15% of the population are young students. Galway’s cultural life is rich and colorful, and it regularly hosts grand international literary festivals, art festivals, music festivals and horse racing festivals every year, the most famous of which is the Galway Art Festival, which has a history of more than 30 years.
County Kildare Irish: Contae Chill Dare) is located on the eastern part of the island of Ireland, with an area of 1,693 square kilometres and the capital city of Ness. When it comes to Kildare, female friends must not be missed. Because Kildare Village, located in County Kildare, is the only fashion boutique shopping village in Ayr, it is also the main reason for most visits to Kildare. Visitors can buy a wide range of Irish designer brands and international high-end brands at discounted prices of up to 40%, all year round. Each summer Kildare Village’s Colourful Summer Festival continues throughout July.
In addition, the relatively large counties and cities are Watford, County Carey, County Mayo and so on.

5.15 million (May 2023) [20] [22]. The vast majority are Irish. The official languages are Irish and English. Catholics make up 74.6%, with the rest mainly Protestant.
The capital city, Dublin, has a population of 1,273,000.
More than 80% of Ireland’s population is Irish, with the rest mainly English and Scottish. In the 1990s, with the economic rise of Ireland, some Chinese poured in from mainland China, the United Kingdom, Southeast Asia and other countries. There are about 50,000 to 60,000 Chinese in Ireland, mainly concentrated in Dublin, Cork and other large and medium-sized cities. Overseas Chinese in Ireland are mainly engaged in service industries such as catering, Chinese medicine and supermarkets. In addition, after graduation, some of the overseas students became lawyers, doctors, company employees, college teachers and other mainstream professions in Ireland, which gradually improved the social and economic status of overseas Chinese in Ireland.

Ireland’s traditional economy was based on farming and animal husbandry. Established in 1959, the Shannon Development Zone was the world’s first special economic zone and has been hailed as a successful example of regional development. Since the 1980s, China has vigorously developed high-tech industries such as software and bioengineering, attracted a large number of overseas high-tech investment with a good investment environment, and rapidly completed the leap in economic structure from agriculture and animal husbandry to knowledge, achieving rapid growth, and the economic growth rate once ranked first among EU member states.
After the international financial crisis in 2008, Ireland became one of the first European countries to have an economic recession. In 2010, Ireland fell into a sovereign debt crisis, accepted 85 billion euros of aid from the European Union and the International Monetary Fund, and implemented severe fiscal austerity policies. In 2011, it was the first of the heavily indebted countries in the EU to return to economic growth, and in December 2013, it announced its unconditional withdrawal from the EU, European Central Bank and International Monetary Fund bailout program. In 2020, Ireland’s economy grew by 3.4% year on year, making it one of the few EU economies to maintain positive economic growth despite the COVID-19 pandemic, with a GDP of 351 billion euros. With a year-on-year GDP growth of 13.5% in 2021, Ireland is the fastest growing economy in Europe in 2021. In 2022, Ireland’s GDP reached 475 billion euros, an increase of 9.4%.

There are mainly electronics, telecommunications, chemical, pharmaceutical, machinery manufacturing, mining, textile, clothing, leather, paper, printing, food processing, wood processing and other departments. In recent years, the chemical industry, electronic engineering, computer software and other industries have made rapid progress, and the proportion of traditional clothing, shoe and leather industries has decreased significantly.
Mainly in animal husbandry. Livestock and their products account for more than 70% of the total agricultural output value. The main crops are wheat, oats, potatoes, sugar beets and so on. Arable land and forest land account for 75% of the total land area.
Finance and finance
Tax revenue in 2022 was €82.4 billion, an increase of €14.9 billion, or 22%, with corporate income tax revenue up by €7.3 billion, or 48%. At the end of 2022, Ireland’s government debt stood at 225 billion euros, down 11 billion euros from the previous year and the first debt reduction since 2019.
Central Bank of Ireland: Established in 1943, it was restructured and renamed the Central Bank and Financial Service Authority of Ireland in May 2003. The euro was adopted on 1 January 2002.
Foreign trade
It plays an important role in the economy. The main trading partners are other EU member states, the United States, China and other countries. The main export commodities are pharmaceuticals and organic chemicals, and the main import commodities are aircraft and machinery products. Trade reached a new high in 2022, with exports totaling 208 billion euros, up 26% year-on-year, and imports totaling 140 billion euros, up 35% year-on-year.
Irish as the national language is the first official language; English is the second official language. But in fact English is the first common language. About 35% of the Irish population speaks Irish and it is compulsory in primary and secondary schools. The National Irish Language Council promotes the use of Irish throughout the country and has established Irish language radio and television stations.
In Ireland, 87% of the population is Roman Catholic, the rest are Christian, Protestant, Buddhist and so on. Irish people are simple and warm, and they dress neatly and appropriately on social occasions. Meeting and talking at home, in pubs and other places is a common way for people to relax.
Irish people are simple and warm, and they dress neatly and appropriately on social occasions. Meeting and talking at home, in pubs and other places is a common way for people to relax. For business meetings, an appointment is required. If invited to an Irish home, a bottle of wine, a bouquet of flowers, a box of chocolates or cheese are all appropriate gifts. When Irish people meet guests on social occasions, they usually shake hands. When meeting friends and relatives, most of them kiss the cheek or stick to the cheek two or three times instead of shaking hands to show mutual affection and friendship.
Like most Western countries, the Irish taboo “13” and “Friday”, do not want others to ask their whereabouts, salary, age and marital status. Irish people love green, avoid the combination of red, white and blue.
The main festivals in Ireland are: New Year’s Day on January 1, St. Patrick’s Day on March 17, Good Friday and Easter (the first Sunday after a full moon from March 21 onwards is Easter, and the Friday before Easter is Good Friday, Holidays from Friday to Monday), Bank Holidays (first Monday in June, August and last Monday in October), Halloween on 31 October, Christmas Eve on 24 December, Christmas Day on 25 December, St Stephen’s Day on 26 December, Mardi Gras on 31 December.
The general work week is five days, and Saturday and Sunday are public holidays.
The traditional diet of Ireland is very similar to that of Britain. The family diet is dominated by potatoes, vegetables and beef, and bread is one of the staple foods of Irish people. The cooking method of potatoes is rich, and the cooking method of vegetables is mainly boiled. Because Dublin is close to the sea, there is a lot of fresh seafood and seafood dishes. On the basis of the traditional diet, Ireland has introduced the diet of France, Italy and other countries, Irish food is not greasy, very light. A typical meal consists of potatoes, meat (lamb, pork, chicken) or fish, one or two vegetables (carrots, celery, cabbage, Onions, peppers, cucumbers, mushrooms are all seasonal vegetables), or eaten raw (salad) or boiled; In addition, Irish people love to eat dairy products, eggs, cheese, milk, yogurt, fruit and so on.
Irish people usually used to eat British western food, dining habit of using knives and forks, they especially like to eat stewed dishes, especially dishes with high nutritional value, more they prefer; Happy to drink clear soup, like to have a variety of condiments on the table; At the same time, they also like Chinese Su food and Cantonese food very much. Irish people entertain friends of the tea party is very particular, when friends visit and sit down, first let the guests drink a cup of Irish unique dark beer (Guinness), and then the host is willing to serve tea or coffee and other convenient food. According to legend, the world famous Guinness World Records, it is the Irish drinking Guinness black beer, bragging and betting created. Irish Whiskey is a type of whiskey distilled from barley malt and grain produced only in Ireland.

The traditional dress for Irish men is the skirt.
Music plays an important role in Irish culture, and the harp is a typical traditional musical instrument in Ireland. Its shape was chosen as a symbol of the national emblem of Love, indicating the extremely important position that music occupies in Ireland.
Irish tap dance is passionate, beautiful melody, rhythm is extremely bright and varied, and integrates the essence of Irish traditional music, songs and dances, reflecting the spirit of modern Ireland. Known as the “ambassador of Irish culture,” Riverdance is a large-scale dance show that combines Irish dance, tap dance, Russian folk dance and Spanish flamenco. Widely acclaimed around the world, it is known as the “world’s number one tap dance” and is an excellent representative of Irish culture.
Since its premiere in Dublin in 1995, Riverdance has: performed more than 12,000 times worldwide (2013). (The musical “Cats” ran for 7,000 performances over 21 years); In 32 countries and regions around the world, more than 2,000 theaters; More than 25 million people have watched Riverdance live, with a global television audience of 2.7 billion. The tour covered more than 563,000 miles, equivalent to the distance from Earth to the moon and back; Won the Grammy Award for Best Musical and sold 10 million copies of Riverdance worldwide. A total of 1,200 dancers have joined the troupe, used 12,000 pairs of shoes, worn 9,000 costumes, and drank 150,000 gallons of mineral water.
Physical education
Hockey ball
Irish hockey (hurling) is a unique traditional sport that dates back to before the arrival of Christianity in Ireland (5th century AD) and is the fastest grass sport in the world.
Irish golf has a history of extravagant swings dating back to 7000 BC. Ireland is also shaped by its unique natural geography. In 2006, the Ryder Cup was unanimously recognized by the global golf community, and the World Golf Managers Association named Ireland the best golf destination in the world.
Gaelic football
Gaelic football and cricket are the two most popular sports in Ireland and are two of the four Gaelic sports promoted by the Gaelic Athletic Association. Football is also a popular sport among the general public, and the Irish national football team is one of the symbols of the country. The 2011 Europa League final was played on 18 May at the Aviva Stadium in Dublin, Ireland. The stadium will be called Dublin Stadium at the time of the final, as UEFA avoids having a sponsor’s name on the stadium. Gaelic football is played in the second half with 15 players from each side and the game lasts 60 or 70 minutes. Matches at inter-county level and above are played for 70 minutes, while most Gaelic football matches for the senior and under-21 groups are played for 60 minutes each. In the event of a draw, there will be 20 minutes of extra time, also divided into the first and second halves.
Known as The home of pop music, Ireland is home to one of the world’s greatest rock bands u2, popular boy bands boyzone and westlife, the pure sound of Enya and girl groups celtic women, The Cranberries, One Direction member Niall Horan, music prodigy Declan and so on.
Irish music developed during the struggle for national independence and the promotion of national culture. By the 12th century, Irish harpists were known throughout Europe for their virtuoso skills. In the 17th century, the Irish people skillfully used the harp to fight against the English colonists. In the 18th century, with the rise of the Irish national liberation movement, the anti-feudal movement and the revival of Irish national culture, not only the ancient harp competition conference was restored, but also the Western European continental music took root, blossomed and bore fruit in Ireland, and the Irish capital Dublin developed into an important music center in Europe.
Irish people are proud that the famous German composer Handel’s painstaking classic, based on the biblical story of the oratorio “Messiah” was first performed in Dublin in 1742, conducted by the composer himself; Between 1814 and 1816, Beethoven arranged sixty-two Irish songs; Thirty years older than Chopin, the Dublin-based pianist and composer John Field composed many beautiful serenades that had a great influence on Chopin. The music of Enya, the famous contemporary queen of New century music, is welcomed by the world.
Irish folk songs and folk songs with beautiful melody, strong life atmosphere and romantic color are famous in the world. The folk song “The Last Rose of Summer” , written by the 18th century Dublin poet Thomas Moore, is a favorite song all over the world.

General situation
Inland transportation is mainly by road and rail. The total length of the highway is 96,000 kilometers. The vast majority of international trade in goods is carried by sea. Dublin, Shannon and Cork have major ports and international airports.
Ireland’s roads are in good condition, transport is dominated by roads, and the road network connects to Northern Ireland. The total length of highways in China is about 53.09 million kilometers. All of Ireland’s major cities are connected by motorways or national roads. Ireland carried 159 million tonnes of road freight in 2019.
Ireland’s main airports for International flights are Dublin International Airport, Shannon International Airport and Cork International Airport Airport). Among them, Dublin International Airport is Ireland’s gateway airport. Due to the impact of the epidemic, the passenger throughput of Ireland’s major airports was only 8.293 million in 2020, down 78.2% year-on-year.
Hna and Cathay Pacific launched direct flights from Beijing and Hong Kong to Dublin in 2018, HNA launched direct flights from Shenzhen to Dublin in 2019, and Juneyao Airlines launched flights from Dublin to Shanghai in 2020. After the COVID-19 outbreak is over, it needs to recover.
The Irish rail network is connected to the British rail network. The total length of railway in Ireland in 2019 is approximately 3,237 km, divided into urban light Rail (Luas) and ordinary rail (Rail). Among them, the mileage of light rail is 42.8 kilometers, and the passenger volume is 48.347 million. The length of the ordinary railway is 2,045 kilometers, and the passenger traffic is 50 million people and the freight volume is 346,000 tons. Irish railways are convenient and fast, with major cities and towns having railway stations, and Dublin has three main railway stations to all parts of the country.
Water transport
Maritime transport plays an important role in Irish transport, with 21 ports in operation, the main ports are Dublin, Cork and Watford ports. The Port of Cork is the largest seaport on the south coast of Ireland, Limerick is the southwest coast port and close to Shannon International Airport, Galway is the West coast port, and Watford is the south coast port, dedicated to container traffic. In 2019, Irish ports handled 53.24 million tonnes of cargo and 2.6 million passengers.

Special product
There are two things you should never try in Ireland: the 700-year-old Irish Whiskey and Baileys, the crown of single-taste sweet wines. In Ireland, Whisky is spelled differently than it is in the United States and the United States, not “whisky”, but “Whiskey”. Local people laugh that the extra “e” means that Irish whiskey is “Excellent” than British and American whiskey; Baileys dessert wine is a very creative Irish masterpiece, ranked 13th in the world foreign wine; In addition, there are many flavors of handmade chocolate in Ireland, which is a good gift for friends and relatives. Other Irish specialties include Waterford Krystal crystal glass, Irish tartan, Irish bagpipes, Kladdagh Ring, Tala Brooch, handmade sheep sweaters, etc., which can be given to yourself or to friends.

The Republic of Ireland is located in the North Atlantic Ocean, across the Irish Sea to the east of the United Kingdom. The North East (Northern Ireland) is part of the British Commonwealth. Ireland has a mountainous central China with beautiful scenery and quicksand beaches, which are the best scenery in Europe. Warm currents feed subtemperate bays, and rugged cliffs stretch along 5,600 kilometers of coastline. Ireland is a picturesque country, captivated by its rich natural beauty, with verdant countryside, long sandy beaches, winding lakes and rivers. People here are naturally hospitable and open to conversation. All this is the essence of Ireland as a great holiday destination. Ireland’s national culture is not a single, different regions have different cultures; Moreover, the lives of city and country residents are quite different in some ways. But wherever they live, the Irish maintain a vibrant and lively national culture.
Natural scenery
The Giant’s Causeway
The Giant’s Causeway, located on the Atlantic coast northwest of Belfast, Northern Ireland, is a causeway of tens of thousands of uniform basalt pillars that stretch for thousands of meters. It is one of the world’s 15 most wonderful geomagnetic phenomena, and it is also the first scenic spot on the island of Ireland.
The name “Giant’s Causeway” comes from an Irish folklore. The causeway is said to have been built by Finn Mac Cool, the legendary great Irish hero and leader of the Knights of Fiona, a famous group of Fenian mythological warriors, who were said to be active in the 3rd century AD, in response to the challenge of the Scottish giants, who attacked, His huge size exceeded Finn McKure’s expectations, and at this time his wife had a plan to make him pretend to be her baby, so that the Scottish giant thought Finn McKure’s baby was so big, then Finn must be bigger, so he withdrew, in order to prevent the pursuit of the Scottish giant destroyed the Causeway, leaving today’s Giant’s Way. [4] [8]
The River Shannon is the longest river in all of Ireland and has been an important waterway since ancient times, with a total length of about 400 km, almost running through the entire island of Ireland. The Shannon River originates in the western foothills of the Quelca Mountains in northwest Ireland, and then winds its way south through the central plains to the port city of Limerick in southwest Ireland to the sea. There are many special scenery along the Shannon River, and these scenery, whether it is human or natural, has an inseparable connection with water. Particularly recommended is Galway, which borders the Atlantic Ocean, where lakes, rivers, Bridges and medieval architecture complement each other, known as the “Venice of the West”. The Haikou town of Xiangnong has also been an important tourist destination. There are often unique medieval castle parties, hosts dressed as knights, waitresses in traditional thin waisted and floor-length dresses to serve guests and perform folk songs and dances. The annual Xiangnong River Boat Race is a great opportunity for tourists to enjoy the Xiangnong River.
Lane See
Lough Leane is a famous lake in the south of the island of Ireland, part of the Kuarney group of lakes, which is beautiful and peaceful. It is said that the famous heroic poet of ancient Ireland, Ossian, was taken by elves to a mysterious wonderland here and spent 300 years there.
Cliffs of Moher
Cliffs of Moher (Cliffs of Moher) in the central and western edge of the island of Ireland, facing the vast Atlantic Ocean, famous for its adventure, is the highest cliff in Europe, it stretches 8,000 meters along the west coast of Ireland, the top of the cliff is 200 meters deep from the choppy sea. The Cliffs of Moher are Ireland’s most important seabird habitat, home to many rare plant species and the setting for many films. The Cliffs of Moher are a masterpiece of crustal changes and the impact of countless years of Atlantic waves, and the steep and straight cliff faults are row upon row, like a giant book. The towering Brian Tower near the cliff is the vantage point of the view, and when you climb the height and look far, the “giant book” will let you sigh the years and the uncanny workmanship of nature.
Mount Cropatrick
Croagh Patrick, 764 metres high, is a quartz-stone peak located in County Mayo, Ireland. The mountain has been associated with culture and religion since 441, when the sage St. Patrick reportedly fasted there for 40 days, and today pilgrims come every year on the last Sunday of July to climb barefoot to the summit and pray in a small church there.
It is also worth mentioning that the toilet at the top of Cropatrick Mountain is known as one of the most scenic toilets in the world.
Park attractions
Phoenix Park
Phoenix Park is located on the north bank of the River Liffay, northwest of Dublin, covering an area of 1760 acres, originally built by the Duke of Ormond in 1663, after centuries of change, still maintains the characteristics of the 17th century deer park. Phoenix Park is the largest urban park in Western Europe and the most famous park in Ireland. Because the name of the deer park was originally built in Celtic Finniskk (meaning clear water and green grass), the pronunciation is similar to the English “Phoenix”, the British people called it “Phoenix Park”. The park is criss-crossed by roads and houses the Irish presidential Palace and the US ambassador’s residence.
Victorian style St. Stephen’s Park
The Victorian-style St.Stepahen’s Green is the largest park in downtown Dublin, with gardens, an artificial lake and more than a dozen statues of famous Dublin figures, including Joyce. Originally a private garden, its owner donated it to Dublin City Hall, and today the 22-hectare park is the site of many events, such as St. Patrick’s Day on 16 June, where thousands of revelers sing and dance. The park is close to the National Museum of Ireland, the Natural History Museum, the National Gallery and other famous attractions, if you want to take a carriage tour of Dublin city center, you can catch a ride next to the park.
St. Anne’s Park
The second largest Park in Dublin, St. Anne Park is owned by members of the Guinness family and was founded in 1835 by Benjamin Lee Guinness. There are open forests and a variety of recreational facilities, and the park’s most famous is the St. Anne Rose Garden, which is attracted by tourists from all over the world during the flower season from June to September every year.
The St. Anne Rose Garden has been open to the public since 1975, was awarded a Civic Award by the National Tourism Board and the Urban Planning Institute in 1980, and has been an international center for rose cultivation since 1981.
Historic site
As of 2011, there are two World Heritage Sites in Ireland, Boyne Palace and Skellig Michael Island. Located in the Boyne Bend Archaeological Complex (Boyne Palace) in County Meath, northeast Ireland, the Newgrange Tomb is one of the most famous prehistoric tombs in Ireland, built around 3200 BC in the Neolithic Age, until the arrival of the Celts, Newgrange Tomb is believed to be the residence of their gods. The Boyne is a frequent feature of Celtic mythology. Newgrange’s crypt passage was about 60 feet long and led to a chamber with three recess. The chamber is supported by a complete sealed vault. The cairn covering the chamber weighs about 200,000 tons and is supported by a foundation of 97 boulders. Newgrange’s tomb is a combination of astronomical research, which suggests that Newgrange’s tomb was built about 500 years before the Egyptian pyramids and about 1,000 years before Stonehenge. This may reflect the builder’s intention to express the beginning of a New Year, or the triumph of life over death.
Beale Castle
Birr Castle, which has been the home of the Parson family for generations since 1620, demonstrates the wisdom and imagination of its successive owners. In the 17th century, the square tree hedge planted here was the Guinness World Record for the tallest hedge in the world; In the 18th century, a beautiful man-made lake took shape; In the 19th century, the suspension bridge and the winter garden were built; Formal Gardens, Terrace Gardens and River Gardens are all exemplary gardens. In fact, the garden at Beale Castle is also the largest garden in Ireland, with 50 of its trees being called the “Champion Trees of Britain”; The telescope built by Earl Ross, the third generation owner of Beale Castle, remained the largest in the world for 70 years after its construction, and the Earl used it to observe a spiral nebula, which was later confirmed to be the first human observation of a spiral galaxy.
Dublin Castle
Dublin Castle is one of the oldest buildings in the city of Dublin, it was commissioned by King John of England on August 30, 1204, originally to house the king’s gold and silver jewelry. Dublin Castle is rectangular, the four corners are made up of four castles, its architectural style and scale at the beginning of the construction can be called Europe’s most, surrounded by high walls, the main gate has a suspension bridge, is medieval Dublin’s “city within the city”. In history, Dublin Castle has long been the seat of the power of the British rule in Ireland, and the decoration of the luxurious St. Patrick Hall (banquet Hall), the assembly room, the Throne Room and so on were once the main places of activity of the British Governor in Ireland. Dublin Castle is Ireland’s most important venue for state events, presidential inaugurations, state dinners to welcome foreign heads of state or government are held here. More than half of the historic Dublin Castle was destroyed by fire in 1684. Most of the existing Dublin Castle was built in the 18th century, in the century-long national independence movement, Dublin Castle because of the English stationed, and repeatedly endured the wave of national liberation washed and baptized. After the country gained independence, Dublin Castle became a historical witness to the country’s independence.
St. Patrick’s Cathedral
St.Patrick’s Cathedral If you are visiting Dublin, St.Patrick’s Cathedral is definitely the place to visit. St. Patrick’s Cathedral is the second church in Dublin in the Middle Ages, located on the west side of the southern bank of the River Liffey in the city, where the origin of Christianity is the oldest place in the city, it is said that St. Patrick was baptized in an ancient well here after the devout conversion to Christianity.
The earliest St. Patrick’s Cathedral was built in 450 AD, and in 1181 AD, after King Henry II appointed John Comyn as Archbishop of Dublin, St. Patrick’s Cathedral was built one after another, and the clock tower built in 1370 contains the largest bell in Ireland. The church we see today was rebuilt in the 19th century.
Kelimo Monastery
Kylemore Abbey is located on the west coast of Ireland, backed by the majestic mountains. Grand Gothic castle buildings and Victorian walled gardens make it one of the most popular tourist destinations in the region. The Abbey was founded in 1852, and during the First World War, Benedictine nuns who had moved to the area from Belgium bought it from the owners of the castle who came from England, and the castle was renamed the Abbey of Kelimor. After World War II, the nuns converted part of the castle into a girls’ boarding school run by them. Also worth highlighting is the six-acre Victorian Walled Garden, one of the last Victorian gardens to be built in Victorian Ireland. The passage of time has left the garden stained with dust and vicissitudes, but a complete renovation in 2000 has brought new vitality to the garden, and the plants planted in the Victorian era are still flourishing today.
The Irish Famine Museum
The Great Irish Famine occurred between 1845 and 1852. The main cause of the famine was an oomycete called Phytophthora infestans, which caused rot in potatoes, the main food source for the Irish at the time.
During the famine, Ireland was under the rule of the British government, but the British government provided little help: during this period, Britain still imported a lot of grain from the Americas, and some grain was even transferred through Irish ports, but the hungry Irish people could not afford this food, and eventually a high proportion of the Irish people starved to death. During the seven years of the Great Famine, the population of British-ruled Ireland fell by almost a quarter; In addition to those who died of starvation and disease, about one million people were emigrated due to famine.
This disaster, together with other social and economic factors, severely affected the livelihoods of poor farmers. The famine had a profound impact on Irish society, culture and population.
Kaufer Memorial Center
In 1912, the Titanic struck an iceberg and sank on its maiden voyage from Britain to the United States — the story of the famous movie Titanic. But you know what? The Titanic’s last stop out of Europe was Cobh pier in the Irish port city of Cork. Kaufou also played an important role in the history of the seminal famine and migration events, and in the late 1980s, the local council issued a document called the Queenstown Plan for the Kaufou Memorial Centre, which began the establishment of a major foundation to raise funds for the Kaufou Memorial Centre. Today, the Kaufford Memorial Centre is recognised as one of the flagship projects funded by Tourism Ireland and European Union funds and attracts over 100,000 visitors each year. A visit to the Kaufer Memorial Centre will help you understand the historical development of Ireland.
The Guinness Stout Exhibition Hall
Guinness is a national treasure of Ireland and is found everywhere in Ireland. When you’re in Dublin, be sure to visit the Guinness Storehouse. Guinness, derived from the family name, after 250 years of wind and rain, eventually became a world-famous stout brand. The Guinness Stout Exhibition Hall is a new centre of the Guinness complex, where you’ll get a fresh look at Ireland beyond its traditions.
The Guinness Stout Exhibition Hall was completed in 1904, covering an area of 64 acres, Chicago architectural style, the overall building is cast by steel. The beer exhibition Hall has eight floors and systematically introduces the corporate culture of Guinness. The first floor can taste pure stout; The second floor shows the brewing process of Guinness Stout; On the third floor is the Guinness Stout advertising exhibition, with posters, audio and video products…
Dublin Writers Museum
The writer’s city of Dublin has produced four Nobel Prize winners in literature, if you have a brief understanding of world literature, you must not miss the Dublin Writers Museum (Dublin Writers Museum).
Located in Parnell Square, north of Dublin city centre, the Writers’ Museum is an ornate 18th century Georgian building that houses the achievements of Dublin’s literary giants over the past 300 years. Through the exhibition of books, letters, portraits and personal effects, people will get a closer understanding of Swift, Wilde, Shaw, Yeats, Joyce, Beckett, Heaney and other writers.