London, the capital of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, is the political center of the UK and has the highest number of museums, libraries, cinemas, theaters, sports venues, and five-star hotels in the world. There are 19 Fortune Global 500 headquarters and 7 of the top 100 universities in the world located in London. University College London ranks 8th in the world, Imperial College London ranks 9th in the world, London School of Economics ranks 27th in the world, and King’s College London ranks 33rd in the world. One of the world’s financial centers.
In December 2022, London ranked first in the world for the eleventh consecutive year in the World Urban Comprehensive Strength Index (GPCI) released by the Japan Forest Memorial Foundation. In the 2023 Global City Rankings released by international consulting firms, London ranks first in the world. In 2022, London ranked second in the world in the Colney Global Urban Strength Index. In November 2020, London was ranked first in the world’s first tier cities at the Alpha++level by GaWC. On Forbes Global City Influence Ranking, London is the most influential city in the world, and it has defeated New York to be elected as the world’s largest wealth center.

Historical evolution
London is the capital of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the largest city and economic center in Europe. Two thousand years ago, the Romans established this city. For hundreds of years, London has maintained a tremendous influence in the world.

London has a history of nearly two thousand years as a transportation hub and important city. The earliest origin of London is not accurately recorded in history. Many people believe that London was established by the Romans. However, archaeological research shows that before the arrival of the Romans, there were traces of human activities such as farming, living, and burying the dead in London.
By the first century AD, under the leadership of Emperor Claudius, the Romans officially conquered this place that later became England in 43 AD. They built a settlement on the banks of the Thames and named it Londinium. Later, the Romans built city walls here and gradually established a large-scale city in the area surrounded by the walls.

Although Londinium may seem like a Latin name, some scholars believe that the word originates from the language used by the Celts who originally lived there, and may mean a wilderness or a place where rivers flow.
Born (50 AD)
In the year 50 AD (Roman Empire). At that time, London was known as Londinium, also translated as Londinium. In 1801, London became the world’s largest city.
The record of London in the Book of Romans dates back to 50 AD, when the name London came from the Celtic word Londinium. The Celts invaded England in AD 43 and later built a bridge across the Thames River. They discovered a favorable geographical location in the area and built another port. Around 50 AD, Roman merchants built another town by the bridge, giving birth to London.

In the year 61 AD, Queen Boudicca led the people to resist the rule of the Romans, and her army advanced to London. London was destroyed in the war, and after the chaos, it was rebuilt by Queen Budica. The wealthy in the city use stones and bricks to build houses, while the majority of the poor can only live in wooden houses.
Rise and fall of honor and disgrace (2nd century AD)
In the latter half of the 2nd century, a 6-meter-high Stonewall was built around London, and by this time the population of London had grown to become the largest town in England at that time. In 407 AD, as the last batch of Roman troops withdrew from England, the towns of London also began to decline. A large number of residents have left the city, and there are only a few fishermen and farmers living inside the city walls. London has also lost its urban function. But soon London developed again, and a new city emerged in the city wall surgery of London’s Wentgerden. The new city is not large and has a population of only about 10000 people.
597 monks from Rome came to London, who were converted Christians from Saxons. In 604, a bishop was sent to London. Silver coins began to be minted in London in 640.
In 842 and 851, the Danes invaded England twice, robbing and burning down most of the towns. The invading army occupied the northern and eastern territories of Britain, including London.
Recovery (886 AD)
In 878, the Danes were defeated by Alfred the Great, and the British territory was divided into two parts. The Danes took the eastern territories of England, including London. And Alfred the Great preserved the land in the southern and western regions. Through peaceful negotiations, Alfred the Great recaptured London in 886 and repaired the walls of the dilapidated Old Roman city. In order to obtain protection, Londoners living outside of Rome moved back to the city during the reign of Alfred the Great. In 994, the Londoners repelled the Danes and forced them to evacuate the area.
Controversy (11th century)
After the Anglo Saxons, the Normans from northwestern France left a deep impression on British history. Their leader William claimed to have the right to inherit the throne of Anglo Saxon King Edward the Confessor due to blood ties and launched a massive attack. In 1066 AD, William’s military campaign was successful and he became the monarch of England, known as William the Conqueror.
Although the capital of England was located in Winchester, southwest of London at this time, William also built a sturdy Tower of London in eastern London to consolidate his position and defend against the invasion of rebels, which should also be a means of declaring himself.
Under the rule of the Normans, London finally became the capital of England in the 12th century AD.
Middle Ages (12th century)
Scholars generally believe that after the Norman rule began, Britain entered the so-called “Middle Ages”.
The characteristics of this period include the gradual consolidation of royal power and the expansion of the power of the Christian Church. London also gradually developed at that time, evolving into a model of two cities merging into one city of London. To the east, the City of London was established on the basis of the ancient Roman city of London. The area later developed into the City of London. To the west, the City of Westminster became the seat of the royal family and government.
During this period, the royal family gradually built palaces in London, and the church also built many churches and monasteries. On the London side, the mayor’s power is becoming increasingly stable, and business is developing rapidly.
Many famous buildings in London were built during this period, including the famous London Bridge. It started construction in 1176 AD and was completed in 1209, after which it underwent repeated demolition and construction.
In terms of palaces, famous palaces were built during that period. Later, due to a large fire, most of the buildings in the palace were destroyed. The British Parliament is built on the site of Westminster Palace. Only the Westminster Hall, which can still be seen in ancient palaces, and the Jewel Tower next to the palace opposite the Parliament Building.
The development of the church at that time also left footprints. Famous churches built during this era include Westminster, St. Paul’s Cathedral, and Great St Bartholomew, which were originally monasteries. In addition, many monasteries were also built during this period, with a famous example being the Charterhouse of the Carthusian Order.
Natural and man-made disasters (the first half of the 14th and 17th centuries)
London was plagued like the European continent between the 14th and 17th centuries. The deadly Black Death pandemic caused a sharp decline in the population of London. It is estimated that only two-thirds of the population survive.
In 1642, the war between members of the British Parliament and royalists began. In 1643, the royalists attempted to capture London, but their armies met 10 kilometers west of St. Paul’s Cathedral. The parliamentary army had a stronger combat power than the other, so the royalist army was repelled.
In 1666, the most severe fire in history broke out in London – the Great Fire of London. Approximately 13200 houses were destroyed by the fire, including the St. Paul’s Cathedral. Approximately 800000 people are displaced and homeless. The king ordered the navy to help the disaster victims who were camping in the city build tents. In order to prevent such situations from happening again, the king ordered all future houses built in London to use stones and bricks as building materials, rather than wood. The fire is said to have been caused by human error, burning down almost all buildings in London, but urban construction has had a chance to start over.
Population growth (16th century)
After the 16th century, with the rise of British capitalism, London’s scale rapidly expanded. In 1500 AD, the population of London was only 50000. In 1600, the population increased to 200000, and in 1700 it increased to 700000. From the 18th to the 19th century, London had become the world’s largest financial and trade center. In 1900, the population of London increased to 2 million. By the 1960s, the population of London had reached over 8 million. [10]
Revival Again (Second Half of 17th Century -19th Century)
In the second half of the 17th century, some fashionable design style houses began to be built in Bloomsbury and on the road to Knightsbridge in London. Several hospitals were also built in these areas over the course of a century, including Westminster (1720), Guys (1724), St. Georges (1733), London (1740), and Middlesex (1745).
London developed rapidly in the 18th and 19th centuries, and with the Industrial Revolution and commercial prosperity, its population continued to increase. In 1834, the Capitol building was destroyed by a fire and later rebuilt. The newly built Capitol also includes a large clock, known as Big Ben. The outbreak of cholera from 1859 to 1875 led to the birth of the sewer system. From then on, the mortality rate from infectious diseases has greatly decreased.
In the 19th century, a number of new museums were built in London, including the Victoria&Albert Museum (1852), the Science Museum (1857), and the Natural History Museum (1881). The New Scotland Yard was built in 1891.
The development of the British Empire brought enormous business opportunities to Britain. In order to facilitate the export of products, as well as the entry of required raw materials and foreign products, multiple large shipyards have been built in eastern London. The development of the shipping industry is very vigorous.
By the early 20th century, London had a population of 6.6 million, making it the largest city in the world at that time.
War destruction (first half of the 20th century)
The two World Wars that broke out in the 20th century caused serious damage to London, and some of the damage suffered during World War II can still be seen in London.
In the early 1940s, Nazi German Air Force planes conducted intensive bombings on British cities, including London, causing serious damage to property and human life.
As far as London is concerned, the eastern part of the city has been most severely damaged, partly because it is a shipyard area, which is the beginning of one of London’s supply lines. Many people living in London were forced to evacuate to other parts of the UK.
Under the bombing by the German Air Force, it is estimated that approximately 35000 London citizens were killed, approximately 50000 people were seriously injured, and tens of thousands of buildings were damaged or destroyed, including St. Paul’s Cathedral and several churches in the City of London.
Although repair work continued after the war, many traces of war damage can still be seen in London. Nevertheless, many new buildings have been built amidst the ruins. Novelty buildings mixed with old houses also add some interesting elements to the city’s appearance.
Strong development (second half of the 20th century)
In 1944, after World War II, due to the rapid expansion of London’s population, it was proposed and planned to establish a satellite city in the surrounding area 20-30 miles away from the city of London and attract skilled workers to work in the satellite city, thereby reducing the pressure of the city’s overpopulation.
Starting from the 1950s, London entered a prosperous era, and the automotive and aircraft manufacturing industries developed rapidly. The dock is also very busy, with a workforce of 30000 people. But since the 1960s, it has been affected by the gradual collapse of the British Empire.
Although the number of immigrants to London has significantly decreased since 1945, the population has rapidly increased in the latter years of the 20th century.
The Thames River passes through London, dividing the city into two parts: north and south. Since the Romans settled there, bridges have gradually been built on the river, with the most famous being the Tower Bridge of London.

Administrative division
As of 2016, the Greater London metropolitan area was divided into the City of London and the surrounding 32 municipalities. The Greater London metropolitan area can be further divided into four regions: City of London, West London, East London, and South London. The City of London is a financial capital and trade center, while West London is the seat of the Royal Palace, Prime Minister’s residence, Parliament, and various government departments. East London is an industrial and residential area, while South London is a mixed zone of industry, commerce, and housing.
City of London
Autonomous City

  1. City of Westminster
  2. Kensington and Chelsea
  3. Hammersmith and Fulham
  4. Wandsworth
  5. Lambeth
  6. Southwark
  7. Tower Hamlets
  8. Hackney
  9. Islington
  10. Camden
  11. Brent
  12. Ealing
  13. Hounslow
  14. Richmond
  15. Kingston
  16. Merton
  17. Sutton
  18. Croydon
  19. Bromley
  20. Lewis
  21. Greenwich
  22. Bexley
  23. Havering
  24. Barking and Dagenham
  25. Redbridge
  26. Newham
  27. Waltham Forest
  28. Haringey
  29. Enfield
  30. Barnet
  31. Harrow
  32. Hillingdon

Geographical environment
Location domain
London is located on a plain in southeastern England, with the Thames River running through it. The city center coordinates are 51 ° 30 ′ N and 0.1 ° 5 ′ E. Greater London covers an area of 1577 square kilometers and had a population of approximately 8.9 million in 2016.
London spans both banks of the lower Thames River, 88 kilometers from the mouth of the river. The city center coordinates are 51 ° 30 ′ N to 0.1 ° 5 ′ E. The area of Greater London is approximately 1577 square kilometers, and the urban area of London is approximately 310 square kilometers.
topographic features
London spans both sides of the Thames River, with a predominantly plain terrain and a relatively low elevation. The average elevation of the city is about 24 meters (79 feet).
London is influenced by the North Atlantic warm current and westerly winds, and has a temperate marine climate with small temperature differences throughout the four seasons. It is cool in summer and warm in winter, with humid air and abundant rain and fog, especially in autumn and winter.
The summer temperature in London is around 18 ° C, sometimes reaching 30 ° C or higher. In spring and autumn, the temperature remains around 15 ° C. In winter, the temperature fluctuates around 6 ° C. There is a rare occurrence of freezing in winter in London.
The Thames River is an important river in London. It originates in the Cotswold Hills in southern England near Serenster. The river first flows from west to east, turns southeast at Oxford, turns northeast after passing Reading, turns east again at Windsor, passes through London, and finally empties into the North Sea near Southrend. The Thames River network is complex with numerous tributaries, including the Cheun River, Cohen River, Cole River, Windrush River, Evanlord River, Chaver River, Ray River, Oak River, Kenneth River, Loden River, Wey River, Lee River, Rodin River, and Darente River.
Natural resources
Water resource
The average annual runoff of the Thames River in London is approximately 15.9 billion cubic meters, with a per capita share of approximately 270 cubic meters. London has a high degree of industrialization, and the development and utilization of water resources are mainly aimed at improving the domestic water use of urban and rural people, developing industry, inland waterway shipping, aquaculture, and water tourism.

Plant resources
In 2011, the forest coverage area of London was 300000 hectares, accounting for approximately 13% of the city’s total area.
Animal resources
London has abundant animal resources, including hedgehogs, harvest mice, and sparrows.
Mineral resources
London’s main mineral resources include coal, iron, oil, and natural gas. The total reserves of hard coal are about 17 billion tons.

The Greater London metropolitan area is the most populous metropolitan area in Europe. The population of London is 8.9 million (in 2016). The population of the Greater London metropolitan area is approximately 14 million (in 2016).
According to the 2016 census, London has the highest ethnic diversity in the UK, with approximately 82% being white, 10% being Asian, 5% being of black descent, and 3% being mixed race. About 2% of them are Chinese. 58.2% of the population believes in Christianity, and 15.8% of the population has no religious beliefs. Approximately 21.8% of London residents were born outside the European Union. In 2022, the population of London was 8.83 million.

London is the world’s largest financial center, controlling 45% of foreign exchange trading and pricing rights for commodities such as gold, silver, and crude oil. It is also the world’s largest center for banking, insurance, futures, and shipping. The average daily foreign exchange trading volume in London is as high as $2.7 trillion, ranking first in the world and second in the total wealth of residents.
London is one of the largest economic centers in the world and also the largest city in Europe. London and New York are tied as the world’s top international metropolises. The financial industry is the pillar industry of London, which is the world’s most important center for banking, insurance, foreign exchange, futures, and shipping. 19 Fortune Global 500 companies are headquartered in London, with 75% of them having companies or offices in the City of London. In addition, multinational corporations and financial institutions around the world have branches in London. Approximately 45% of global currency business is traded in London. The London Stock Exchange is one of the most important securities trading centers in the world.
Due to being one of the two major English speaking countries in the world and having the advantage of international capital circulation, London and New York have always been the two most important international metropolises in the world since World War II, and London has also maintained its position as the world’s largest financial center city.
London is one of the most important economic centers in the world and also the largest economic center in Europe. London is the world’s largest international metropolis, on par with New York. The financial industry is the most important economic pillar of London. In 2018, the regional GDP of London reached 653.2 billion US dollars.
The City of London, also known as Square Mile, is the largest financial center in London, with numerous banks, insurance companies, and financial institutions. About half of the UK’s top 100 companies and over 100 European Fortune 500 companies have their headquarters in London. Approximately 45% of global currency business is traded in London. The London Stock Exchange is one of the most important securities trading centers in the world.
There are over 500 banks in London (as of 1991), ranking first among cities in the world in terms of bank numbers. Among them, there are 470 foreign banks, with a total capital of over 200 billion pounds in London.
London is the world’s largest international foreign exchange market, with an annual total foreign exchange transaction volume of £ 3 trillion, and approximately 45% of global currency transactions are conducted in London. London is also the world’s largest US dollar trading market, with oil exporting countries generating over 50 billion US dollars in oil revenue per day, accounting for more than one-third of the world’s US dollar trading volume.
The Bank of England, the Central Bank of the United Kingdom, as well as 16 clearing banks and over 60 commercial banks, are also located here. The most famous clearing banks among them are Barclays, Lloyds, Midland, and National Westminster.
London is the world’s largest international insurance center, with over 800 insurance companies, including over 170 branches of foreign insurance companies.
London has the largest number of banks in the world, with over 480 foreign banks, and its total capital in London is the highest among all cities in the world. London is the world’s largest international insurance center, with over 800 insurance companies, including over 170 branches of foreign insurance companies. London’s insurance business has a long history, strong funds, and excellent reputation.
London is also the world’s largest commodity trading market, controlling the pricing power of global commodities such as gold, silver, and crude oil. Therefore, international gold is called London gold, and international silver is called London silver.
The London Stock Exchange is one of the four major exchanges in the world. In addition, London has numerous commodity exchanges engaged in the trading of valuable or large global commodities such as gold, silver, non-ferrous metals, wool, rubber, coffee, cocoa, cotton, oilseeds, wood, sugar, tea, and antiques.
London is one of the wealthiest and most affluent cities in the world. There are 4944 billionaires with assets exceeding $30 million and nearly 400000 billionaires with assets exceeding $1 million living in London, both of which are the largest in the world. The total wealth of residents in London ranks second in the world, very close to that of New York, which ranks first. From the fourth quarter of 2017 to the third quarter of 2018, the London real estate market attracted 20 billion euros in investment, ranking first among European cities. Paris and Berlin ranked second and third with 12 billion euros and 8 billion euros respectively.
In 2022, ranked 4th in the International Science and Technology Innovation Center Index.

Transportation is one of the four policy areas under the responsibility of the Mayor of London, but the Mayor’s financial management authority over transportation is limited, with the Transport for London (TFL) as its administrative body. London’s public transportation is a huge transportation system in the world, but it faces problems of overcrowding and poor reliability. In response, the London government has prepared multiple large-scale transportation investment plans.
London’s air transportation is very developed, with Heathrow Airport and Gatwick Airport being the two airports. Heathrow Airport is located in the western suburbs of London and is the airport with the largest passenger volume in Europe. Sometimes, there are nearly a thousand aircraft taking off and landing in a day. During peak air freight periods, there is an average of one aircraft taking off and landing per minute. The transportation in London is convenient, and the subway is the main mode of transportation in the city. On January 10, 1863, the world’s first underground railway, the London Underground, began operating. By 1991, there were 9 main subway lines in London, with a total length of 414 kilometers. The technology and management equipment of the London Underground are advanced, and all dispatch and signaling systems are automatically controlled. In 1897, London began offering bus services and was one of the earliest cities in the world to have buses. By 1991, there were over 350 bus routes in the Greater London metropolitan area, with a total length of 2800 kilometers and over 6600 buses, all of which were double decker buses. In addition, there are about 13000 taxis in London. The Port of London is the largest port in the UK and one of the world’s famous ports. The whole Hong Kong includes the Royal Wharf Area, India and Millwall Wharf Area, and Tilbury Wharf Area, which have established connections with ports in more than 70 countries, with an annual throughput of about 45 million tons.
The core of London’s public transportation network is the London Underground, which has been the oldest and largest subway system in the world since its establishment in 1863. The London Underground also includes the world’s first underground electrical railway line, the City&South London Railway, which has been in service since 1890. About one billion passengers take the London subway system every year. The main service area of the London Underground is the city center and most of the suburbs north of the Thames, while the south is served by an extended suburban railway network.
Railways are divided into:

  • Bakerloo Line (Brown)
  • Central Line (Red) London Underground
  • Circle Line (Yellow)
  • District Line (Green) London Underground Area Line (Green)
    Hammersmith&City Line (Pink)
    Jubilee Line (Silver)
  • Metropolitan Line (Dark Magenta)
  • Northern Line (Black)
    Piccadilly Line (Dark Blue)
  • Victoria Line (Light Blue) London Underground
    Waterloo&City Line (Turquoise)
  • DLR (Dockland Light Rail) London Dockland Light Rail
  • London Overground
    Elizabeth Line
  • Trams electric railway
    The Eurostar train can connect from St Pancras station in London to Lille and Paris in France, as well as Brussels in Belgium.
    London is arguably the busiest and oldest railway network in the world, with an estimated daily passenger volume of up to 3 million on the London Underground. Due to a shortage of investment in the London Underground, the aging of ancient infrastructure requires a significant amount of funding for maintenance, making it particularly severe. Train congestion and schedule delays have become common occurrences on some routes. However, there are also routes that have received significant financial investment and are constructing extension branch line projects. Commuter and intercity railways usually do not cross cities, but instead run into 14 stations scattered throughout the old city center. The London bus network is responsible for most of the local transportation and even carries more passengers than the subway. Buses, black taxis, and subways have become important representatives of London’s transportation.
    London is an important international airport. More than eight airports use “London Airport” in their names, but most of the traffic passes through one of the five major airports. Heathrow Airport is one of the busiest international airports in the world, handling various domestic, European, and cross state passengers and flights. And some cheap and short haul flights will also take off and land at Gatwick Airport.
    Despite the well-developed public transportation system in the center of London, cars are still predominant in the more peripheral areas of London. The London Inner Ring Road (surrounding the city center), the northern (A406 road) and southern (A205 road) ring roads (located in the suburbs), and a highway (M25 highway, located on the outskirts of the city) surround the city center of London and intersect with several busy roads, but there are almost no highways passing through the city center. In the 1960s, preparations began for a highway project called the London Rings, which planned to build a highway that would cross the city. However, due to opposition from residents and excessive costs, the project was discontinued in the early 1970s. Due to the generally narrow streets in the city and the nearly double increase in the number of cars in the London area since 1960, London’s traffic congestion is the most notorious in Europe. In 2003, in order to reduce traffic in the city center, London began charging congestion fees. Vehicles must pay a daily fee of £ 8 to enter designated areas in central London, and residents living in designated areas can purchase monthly renewal passes.
    Water transport
    The Port of London is the busiest port in the UK, with water transportation and related facilities mainly concentrated along the Thames River. However, due to the narrow Thames River, larger ships were unable to enter the city of London and instead docked downstream. Despite this, the flow of ships in the city of London remained very frequent.

London is the political center of the country, the location of the British royal family, government, parliament, and the headquarters of various political parties. Westminster Palace is the venue for activities in both the upper and lower houses of the British Parliament, hence it is also known as the Parliament Hall. Westminster Abbey, located south of Parliament Square, has been a place for the coronation of British kings or queens and the wedding of members of the royal family since its completion in 1065.
Buckingham Palace is a British royal palace located in the central area of West London, adjacent to St. James’s Park to the east and Hyde Park to the west. It is a place where members of the British royal family live and work, as well as a venue for major national events in the UK.
Whitehall is the location of government agencies in the UK, including the Prime Minister’s Office, Privy Council, Ministry of the Interior, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Defence, and other major government agencies. The core of Whitehall is the Prime Minister’s Office located at 10 Downing Street, which has been the official residence of successive British Prime Ministers.
London is not only the political center of the UK, but also the headquarters of many international organizations, including the International Maritime Organization, the International Union of Cooperatives, the International PEN, the International Women’s Union, the Socialist International, Amnesty International, and so on.
Headquarters: City Hall, London
Regional Government: Greater London Authority
Regional Council: London Assembly
City Government: London City Government
Mayor: Sadiq Khan, re elected in May 2021.
UK Parliament: 74 constituencies
London Parliament: 14 constituencies
European Parliament: London constituency

Social undertakings
London is a globally leading world-class city, one of the wealthiest, most economically developed, commercially prosperous, and with the highest standard of living in the world. It influences the world in politics, economy, culture, education, technology, finance, commerce, sports, media, fashion, and other aspects. It is the only city in the world that has hosted the Olympic Games three times.
London is the city with the largest number of students in the UK, with numerous universities, colleges, schools, and academic research institutions. The University of London, Imperial College London, University of Greenwich, City University London, Royal Academy of Music, Royal Academy of Arts, Royal Dance School, and other famous universities in the UK.
The University of London was founded in 1836 and currently has over 60 colleges. It is the largest university in the UK and Europe, with 125000 students enrolled and composed of over 50 colleges. Among them, famous ones include:
London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE)
University College London (UCL)
King’s College London (KCL)
London Business School (LBS)
Queen Mary, University of London
Royal Holloway, University of London
School of Oriental and African Studies, London (SOAS)
Other famous universities include the University of the Arts London and the University of Westminster.
Sports industry
London successfully hosted the Olympic Games twice in 1908 and 1948, and was awarded the hosting rights for the 2012 Summer Olympics on July 6, 2005. In 1934, London also hosted the British Empire Games, and in 1966, Britain also held the World Cup; 30 years later, the European Championship will also be held.
The Fourth Olympic Games were held in London from April 27 to October 31, 1908.
Previously, Berlin, Milan, and Rome also applied to host this Olympic Games. Originally, Rome was chosen, but due to financial issues, Rome abstained in 1906 and was instead hosted by London.
The London Olympics made significant contributions to the standardization of various competition systems in international sports.
Culture and Art
London has five professional symphony orchestras: the London Symphony Orchestra, the London Philharmonic Orchestra, the Royal Philharmonic Orchestra, the Philharmonic Orchestra, and the BBC Symphony Orchestra.
London has dozens of theaters, mainly concentrated in the West End. This includes the National Theatre, the Paris Theatre in London, the Almeida Theatre, and the Globe Theatre, which specializes in performing Shakespeare’s plays.
London is a world-renowned cultural city. The British Museum (officially known as the National Museum of England) was built in the 18th century and is the largest museum in the world, gathering many ancient artifacts from England and various countries around the world. The Egyptian Cultural Relics Museum in the museum displays over 70000 pieces of various ancient Egyptian artifacts; The Greek and Roman Cultural Relics Museum displays various exquisite bronze, pottery, porcelain, gold coins, paintings, as well as many large stone carvings from ancient Greece and Rome; The Oriental Cultural Relics Museum displays a large number of cultural relics from Central Asia, the South Asian subcontinent, Southeast Asia, and the Far East. There are also West Asian Cultural Relics Museum, British Cultural Relics Museum, Gold Coin Emblem Museum, Book and Painting Museum, etc. inside the museum. In addition to the British Museum, London also has many galleries, such as the National Gallery, the National Portrait Gallery, the Tate Gallery, and the Dodgers Gallery. There is also the Sherlock Holmes Museum, a world-renowned detective attraction located at 221B Baker Street.
London is one of the four most famous fashion cities in the world (including Paris, New York, and Milan), and the world-renowned Harold Department Store is located in the city.
London is an important global media center, with several television and broadcasting media outlets, including the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) and Reuters, having their headquarters in London. In addition, ITV, Channel 4, and Five are also located. Fleet Street in the City of London is a hub for the British newspaper industry. Famous newspapers include The Times, The Financial Times, The Daily Telegraph, The Guardian, The Observer, Weekly, and more.


Meanwhile, London is the most important cultural, educational, sports, and technological center in the world. London has the world’s largest number of museums, libraries, cinemas, and sports venues, making it the only city in the world to have hosted three Olympic Games. It boasts the world’s most famous film festivals, music festivals, fashion weeks, as well as the largest number of higher education institutions and renowned universities, and is listed as the best study abroad city in the world.

Among the 53 new technology companies with a market value of over $1 billion in Europe, 22 are located in London. According to data from the London Mayor’s Office, UK technology companies attracted a historic high of nearly £ 3 billion in venture capital in 2017, with London technology companies attracting £ 2.45 billion in investment, accounting for 82% of the national total. In 2017, London attracted far more funds than any other major European city, almost four times that of Germany, and more than the sum of France, Ireland, and Sweden.

The traditional festivals in London mainly include Christmas, Easter, and Thanksgiving, as well as special holidays such as the Royal Proclamation Day and the Queen’s Birthday.

Sesame vegetable
Sesame vegetable, also known as purple southern mustard, is also known as mustard, German mustard, etc. Its English names are rocket and arugulal. It is named after its fresh leaf juice, which has a sesame aroma. Widely produced on the European continent, it is one of the favorite seasonal vegetables among Londoners.
Haggis is a traditional food similar to sausages, also known as lamb offal pudding by locals. It is made by mixing lamb offal into small pieces, adding other seasonings, and steaming them into pig intestines.

Scenic spots

The main attractions in London include River Thames, Tower Bridge, Swiss Re Tower, Palace of Westminster, Big Ben, Millennium Bridge, London Eye, Greenwich Observatory, Canary Wharf, Millennium Dome, and St. Paul’s Cathedral. Cathedral et al.

Honorary title
On July 11, 2019, the 2019 Xinhua Baltic International Shipping Center Development Index was released, and London ranked third in the world.
On October 10, 2019, London won the C40 City Clean Air Award.
On November 12, 2019, London ranked second in the “Top 20 Global Urban Economic Competitiveness in 2019”.
In 2019, London ranked fourth among the top 20 global sustainable competitiveness.
On December 26, 2019, it ranked second on the 2019 Global Cities 500 list.
In September 2021, London ranked second in the 30th Global Financial Centers Index (GFCI).
On March 24, 2022, ranked second in the 31st issue of the Global Financial Center Index.