Sydney, located on the southeast coast of Australia, is the capital of New South Wales and the largest city in Australia. The coordinates of the city center are 33 ° 51 ‘S and 151 ° 12’ E. The Greater Sydney Metropolitan Area covers an area of approximately 12368.193 square kilometers, with an urban area of approximately 1687 square kilometers and a population of approximately 5.12 million (as of 2023). The Greater Sydney Metropolitan Area consists of the urban area of Sydney and 33 suburbs.

Between 2012 and 2013, Sydney’s regional GDP reached $337.5 billion, earning it the nickname of the “New York” in the southern hemisphere. Sydney has been rated as one of the most livable cities in the world by UN-Habitat for many consecutive years, and was ranked seventh by GaWC as a world first tier city in 2018.

Sydney has a highly developed financial, manufacturing, and tourism industries. Among them, the headquarters of world-class multinational corporations and domestic and foreign financial institutions are all rooted in Sydney. Meanwhile, Sydney is also the location of the Australian Stock Exchange, Reserve Bank of Australia, and 20th Century Fox Studios in the United States. Sydney is also a host city for many important international sports events, having hosted the 1938 Commonwealth Games, the 2000 Sydney Olympics, and the 2003 Rugby World Cup.

Historical evolution

In 1770, British Navy Captain James Cook discovered the Botany Bay in Sydney and returned to Europe, which subsequently sparked interest in Australia.

In 1788, under the order of the British government, Captain Arthur Phillips of the First Fleet established a criminal exile in Sydney Bay at Jackson Harbor. On February 7th of the same year, Arthur Phillips named the place after the British Home Secretary, Lord Thomas Thomson Sydney.

In April 1789, a disease believed to be smallpox claimed the lives of many indigenous people in Sydney; Conservatively estimated, 500-1000 indigenous people died in the area between Brocken Bay and Botany Bay, and the Gulinkay and Taroor tribes were also infected. At the same time, British colonization encountered stubborn resistance, especially led by the warrior leader Pemulwuy, who was most famous for launching protests near the Botany Bay area, and conflicts often erupted near the Hawksburg River.

In 1796, during Macquarie’s tenure as Governor of New South Wales, Sydney underwent initial development. The prisoners built roads, bridges, docks, and public buildings. Before 1822, there were already banks, markets, well-established highways, and institutionalized police agencies in the city.

In 1820, only a few hundred indigenous people remained in the Sydney area. Governor Macquarie further “civilized, Christianized, and educated” the indigenous people, causing them to leave the tribe.

The 1930s to 1940s were the stages of urban development in Sydney. Ships began to pick up immigrants from the British Isles hoping to start a new life in the new country, thus entering a highly developed golden age in Sydney.

At the end of the 19th century, with the advent of steam powered trams and railway systems, the development of urban areas became more rapid. Due to the convenience brought by industrialization, the population of Sydney has rapidly expanded, and by the eve of the 20th century, the population of Sydney had exceeded 1 million.

At the beginning of the 20th century, Sydney developed rapidly and attracted a large number of new immigrants from Europe and Asia, gradually becoming a world-renowned international metropolis.

In 1942, during World War II, the Japanese Navy used small submarines to launch a surprise attack on Sydney Harbor.

On April 17, 2023, according to Australian Television Channel 9, Melbourne has become the largest city in Australia after being more than a century behind Sydney.

Topographic features

Sydney occupies two geographical areas – the Cumberland Canyon and the Consby Plateau. The Cumberland Canyon is a relatively flat and undulating area lying west and south of Jackson Harbor. The Consby Plateau is a plateau north of the harbor, with an elevation of approximately 200 meters (656 feet), cut open by grassy valleys. The oldest area in Sydney is located in a flat area. The Kangshibi Plateau is called the North Bank. It was not until the opening of the Sydney Harbour Bridge in 1932 that the plateau was connected to the city.

Climatic characteristics

Sydney has a subtropical humid climate with annual rainfall. The weather in Sydney is regulated by the nearby ocean, so the inland western urban area is slightly more continental. The warmest month is January, and the temperature in coastal areas ranges from 18.6 ℃ to 25.8 ℃. On average, 14.6 days of the year are above 30 ℃. The highest temperature on land is 45.3 ℃, which was recorded on January 14, 1939, after a four-day nationwide heat wave ended. Summer is slightly cooler and faster, and temperatures in coastal areas rarely drop below 5 ℃. The coldest month is July, with an average extreme value of 8.0 ℃ -16.2 ℃. The minimum value for land is 2.1 ℃. The rainfall in summer and winter is quite average, with slightly higher rainfall in the first half of the year due to the adjustment of easterly winds. The average annual rainfall is about 1217 millimeters, moderate and with little variation, with an average of 138 days of rainfall throughout the year.

Although Sydney will not encounter cyclones or major earthquakes, the El Ni ñ o Southern Oscillation or the El Ni ñ o Southern Oscillation are affecting Sydney’s weather conditions: on the one hand, there are droughts and forest fires, and on the other hand, there are storms and floods, which are a combination of two opposite aspects of oscillation. Many areas adjacent to forests in Sydney have experienced forest fires, especially in spring and summer. Sydney is also vulnerable to rare hail storms and storms.

Natural resources

water resource

The supply and collection of water resources in Sydney mainly rely on dams, including the Upper Naping Dam, Blue Mountains Six Dam, Woronora Dam, Warragamba Dam, and Shoalhaven Dam.

Plant resources

Sydney has abundant plant resources. In 2016, Sydney’s forest resources reached over 8000 hectares, accounting for about 30% of Australia’s forest area. Among them, over 6300 hectares are natural forests and over 1700 hectares are planted. [9]

Animal resources

Sydney is known as the ‘World Museum of Living Fossils’. According to statistics, there are over 650 bird species in Sydney, of which approximately 450 are unique to Sydney. Most of the marsupials in Australia are distributed in Sydney. Due to its stable environment, Sydney is unique to the ancient biological species that have been preserved during the Earth’s evolution process. Although they appear primitive, they have become living fossils for humans to study the history of Earth’s evolution.

Mineral resources

Sydney is also rich in oil and natural gas resources, with over 70 types of mineral resources. Among them, bauxite reserves rank first in Australia. Other mineral resources include aluminum, lead, tantalum, gold, iron, coal, lithium, manganese, nickel, silver, uranium, and zinc.

Population and ethnicity

The total population of Sydney is 5120894 (as of June 30, 2023).

According to the 2016 census, 1% of Sydney’s population has Australian Indigenous ancestry, and 31.2% are born overseas. The three major sources of immigration are the UK, Greater China, and New Zealand. In addition, many immigrants come from Vietnam, Lebanon, Italy, India, and the Philippines. The diverse immigration has enabled some ethnic groups to have their own settlements, such as Italians living in Leica; The Greeks lived in rocky areas; Lebanese people live in the town of Mercedes Benz; Koreans gather in Kensi; Jews gather in Rose Bay; Indians live in the Barama district; Chinese people live in Haoshiwei; Vietnamese people, on the other hand, live in Kalita. There are a large number of Indigenous Australians living in Hongfang.


Most city government activities in Sydney are guided by the state government. These activities include public transportation, major roads, traffic control, policing, education above kindergarten, and major infrastructure projects.

Since 1945, the scope of elections in Sydney has been changed by the New South Wales government. Subsequently, the New South Wales Parliament has been replaced by the Australian Labour Party and the Australian Liberal Party, and the governments of the two major parties have successively re planned the scope of elections.

Faced with the split in the Sydney Parliament, the Australian Liberal Party reorganized in 1987 and merged the southern suburbs into the new South Sydney Parliament.

In 2004, the Australian Labour State Government merged the councils of Sydney and South Sydney into the Sydney City Council.


Sydney is the commercial, trade, financial, tourism, and educational center of Australia. Between 2012 and 2013, Sydney’s regional GDP reached $337.5 billion. The service industry is the backbone of Sydney’s economy. In 2016, the revenue generated by the service industry accounted for about one-third of the city’s total economic output. In addition, Sydney’s industry and agriculture are also very developed.

As of 2016, there were a total of 497587 enterprises in Sydney, with 2272722 employees and an employment rate of 94%; The number of unemployed people is 146189, with an unemployment rate of 6% and a total labor force of 2418911. Compared to other cities in Australia, Sydney has a higher employment rate and a lower unemployment rate.

Labor is the basic input for Sydney’s production, and scale and composition are key factors for Sydney’s economic growth. From the perspective of social development, Sydney’s paid labor income has had a significant impact on the level of economic development.

In 2022, according to the Asia Pacific City Industry Sustainability Index, Sydney ranked 18th in terms of industrial sustainability in the Asia Pacific region.

Primary industry

Sydney’s agriculture and animal husbandry are relatively developed, and the production and export of agricultural and animal husbandry products play an important role in the economy. In 2016, Sydney’s agricultural and animal husbandry output accounted for approximately 20% of Australia’s total output value.

Secondary industry

Sydney is the industrial center of Australia, with manufacturing, construction, and mining as its main industries. In 2016, Sydney’s industrial output accounted for approximately 10% of Australia’s total output value.

Tertiary industry

The service industry is the mainstay of Sydney’s economy. According to 2016 statistics, the finance and insurance industry accounted for 44% of Australia’s industry output, real estate accounted for 41%, wholesale trade accounted for 38%, catering and entertainment accounted for 36%, manufacturing accounted for 35%, construction accounted for 34%, and retail trade accounted for 32%. The Reserve Bank of Australia and the Australian Stock Exchange are both located in Sydney. There are a total of 53 banks in Australia, with 40 banks headquartered in Sydney. Among the largest 100 companies, three-quarters have established their corporate headquarters or branches in Sydney. Almost all international business personnel visiting Australia visit Sydney, and most world-renowned multinational corporations also have branches or offices in Sydney.

Social undertakings


As of 2017, there were seven universities in Sydney: the University of Sydney, the University of New South Wales, the University of Sydney Technology, Macquarie University, the University of Western Sydney, and the Catholic University of Australia.

There are five universities operating affiliated campuses in Sydney: Notre Dame University of Australia, Le Chateau University, Curtin University, Newcastle University, and the University of Wollongong.

There are four public technology and further education colleges across campuses in Sydney: Sydney Institute of Technology, North Sydney Institute of Technology and Further Education, West Sydney Institute of Technology and Further Education, and Southwest Sydney Institute of Technology and Further Education.

Sydney has four state education districts that coordinate 919 schools. Selective schools are higher education institutions that enroll students based on certain criteria.

Medical treatment

The Sydney government operates many public hospitals, managed by six similar public health service institutions. This includes the Southwest Sydney region, West Sydney region, North Sydney region, Middle Coast region, Southeast Sydney region, and Irawala region, each managing their own hospitals and special healthcare centers.


Sydney is the headquarters of the Australian Rugby League, the base of 8 out of 16 National Rugby League teams (Sydney Rooster, South Sydney Hare, Paramaran Eel, Cronula Shark, West Tiger, Penris Leopard, Canterbury Bulldog, and Manley Breaststroke and Sea Eagles), and the northern base of St. George’s Irawalalon. The Australian Stadium in Sydney is the venue for the NRL Finals.

Some teams in Sydney are members of some sports leagues. Including Sydney Swan (Australian Australian Football League), Sydney Football Club (Australian First Division Football League), Sydney Emperor and West Sydney Pointback (National Basketball League), Sydney University Flame (National Women’s Basketball League), Sydney Blue (Australian Main Basketball League), Sydney Brown Swift (Australian Federal Bank Grand Prix), and New South Wales Blue (First Class Cricket).

In 1864, Australia’s first rugby club was established at the University of Sydney. In 1882, the first Cross Colonial Games were unveiled, and Sydney faced Queensland. Nowadays, the national team competes with the New South Wales Watanabe in the Super Rugby League. Sydney will send two teams to participate in the national rugby match. Traditional club events include the Sedan Shield. Sydney also regularly holds Wallabies International Tournaments.

Sydney once hosted the 1938 Commonwealth Games and the 2000 Summer Olympics, and built places such as the Sydney Olympic Park and Sydney Football Stadium. The Sydney Olympic Park provides venues for multiple large-scale sports events, such as the National Australian Football League Finals, Origins, and the 2006 World Cup qualifiers. The Sydney Football Stadium is the home of the Sydney Rooster, Sydney FC, and New South Wales Watanabe. The nearby Sydney Cricket Stadium is the center of Sydney cricket and Australian football, and has held multiple sports events.

In terms of water sports, Sydney often holds many yacht competitions, such as the Sydney to Hobart yacht competition on the day after Christmas. Sydney’s harbor is a great place for yachting, small rowing, dragon boat racing, and fishing activities. In addition, Sydney has many beaches worth visiting and suitable for land and water sports, such as Bondi Beach, Manley Beach, Palm Tree Beach, and Cronula Beach.


Sydney has many entertainment groups, such as the Sydney Symphony Orchestra, Sydney Theatre Troupe, and Sydney Dance Troupe. Sydney also holds annual cultural events, such as the Archebold Awards competition held by the New South Wales Museum of Art, and the Sydney Festival, a music, theater, and visual arts celebration held in early January each year.

There are two main daily newspapers in Sydney: The Sydney Morning Herald is a major left-wing newspaper that covers a large amount of domestic and international news, culture, and business; It is also the oldest surviving newspaper in Australia and has been regularly distributed since 1831; The Daily Telegraph, on the other hand, is a tabloid newspaper with extreme right-wing populism, owned by news companies. Both newspapers have corresponding small newspapers published on Sunday, namely Sun Herald and Sunday Telegraph.



Sydney has a well-developed railway transportation system. The trains in Sydney are operated by the New South Wales state government’s group, the Railway Company. The railway network in Sydney is all concentrated within the metropolitan area of Greater Sydney’s ring road. Then, it passes through the Central Station or the Sydney Harbour Bridge to reach various suburbs, provided by the urban railway. In addition, trains also provide regional railway services to and from various towns in New South Wales, provided by suburban connections.

The private light rail route in Sydney is the Sydney Urban Light Rail, which runs along the old freight route from Central Station to Lilita. The Sydney monorail cycle operates mainly in shopping areas and Darling Harbor.


Sydney is equipped with a well-equipped highway system, but mainly located in the suburbs, with the Pacific Expressway being Sydney’s main highway.

Most areas of the Greater Sydney metropolitan area are equipped with buses, mostly following pre 1963 tram routes. The bus routes in both the urban and suburban areas are managed by the Sydney Bus Company, with frequent flights. Farther areas have different private bus companies serving them.


Sydney Kingsford Smith International Airport is located in the District of Massachusetts and is the main international airport in Sydney. It is also a long-standing commercial airport still in operation worldwide. The relatively small Banktown airport mainly provides services for private and private aviation. Hoxton Park and Camden are aviation training airports. The Royal Australian Air Force Base is located northwest of the city center. Sydney Airlines has numerous international flights directly to Sydney from major cities around the world.

Specialty cuisine

Due to Sydney’s proximity to the ocean, seafood naturally becomes the best material in various cuisines. Among them, mud crabs, Moreton shell crayfish, and oysters are representative seafood delicacies in the Greater Sydney metropolitan area. Most shops still bake in traditional ways, with sweet, salty, and vegetarian flavors available.

Scenic Spots

Museum, Darling Harbour, Olympic Park, Royal National Park, Rose Bay

Sydney Harbour Bridge, Sydney Opera House Rock Area, Bondi Beach Manny Beach,

Blue Mountains ,Sydney Zoo,Stephen Harbour Queen Victoria Building ,Hyde Park ,Royal Botanical Garden and the South Temple of Wollonggang in the Territory…

Sydney Opera House

The Sydney Opera House is a large-scale comprehensive cultural and artistic performance center in the city of Sydney, Australia, renowned for its unique architectural image. It is built on a stretch of land that extends into the sea within Sydney Harbour, facing water to the east, west, and north, and facing the Royal Botanical Garden to the south.

The total construction area of the Sydney Opera House is approximately 88258 square meters, including a large concert hall with 2690 seats, an opera hall with 1547 seats, a theater with a capacity of over 500 people, and a small concert hall. In addition, there is also a rehearsal hall, reception hall, exhibition hall, recording hall, drama library, and various ancillary rooms, totaling over 900 rooms, which can accommodate more than 6000 people to participate in activities. The exterior of the Sydney Opera House consists of three sets of huge shells, standing on the base of a cast-in-place reinforced concrete structure that is 186 meters long from north to south and 97 meters wide from east to west.

Australian Reptile Park

The reptile park is the largest reptile park in Australia, established in 1948. It is filled with lizards, spiders, platypuses, wombats, koalas, kangaroos, and crocodiles. In addition, there are many animal performances held in the zoo every day, including turtle exhibitions, reptile shows, koala and python performances, koala exhibitions, and spider exhibitions. During holidays, more performances will be held.

Pitt Street Mall

The Pitt Street Shopping Center is a famous shopping street composed of five multi-story commercial streets, the city center, Sydney Central Mall, glass houses, blue sky gardens, and the historic waterfront shopping corridor.

City Honors

In November 2018, the World City Ranking was released, and Sydney ranked seventh.

On December 26, 2019, it ranked sixth on the 2019 Global Cities 500 list.

In April 2020, he was selected as one of the “2020 Global Summer Cities”.

In April 2023, it ranked tenth among the world’s top ten richest cities.

In June 2023, it was selected as one of the “Three Major Tourism Festival Cities in the Asia Pacific 2023”.