Vancouver , located on the Pacific coast of the southwestern province of British Columbia, Canada, is Canada’s main port city and an important economic center, but also the political, cultural, tourism and transportation center of western Canada. The city has been ranked as one of the world’s most livable cities by the Economist Intelligence Unit for several years in a row.
Located in the heart of British Columbia, Canada, Vancouver is an international metropolis and the largest city in the province. Vancouver is the third largest city in Canada in terms of population. In 2016, the population of metro Vancouver reached 632,000.
Vancouver has a highly developed film production industry, is the third largest production center in North America after Los Angeles and New York, known as the “Hollywood of the North”. Vancouver also co-hosted the 2010 Winter Olympics and Paralympics with Vesna, 125 kilometers away. One of the 16 cities to host the 2026 FIFA World Cup.

Early development
Indigenous people
According to the archaeological community, the First Nations have been in the area of Vancouver between 8,000 and 10,000 years ago, and have established villages in Stanley Park, False Creek, Kislano, Gray Point and Fraser Estuary.
Vancouver became the capital of British Columbia in 1858, when gold was discovered in Vancouver, which triggered the Fraser Valley gold rush, more than 25,000 gold prospectors arrived in the lower mainland to resupply and prepare to travel to the interior of British Columbia, but did not enter the current city of Vancouver. The first European settlement within the current city limits did not appear until 1862, in what is now the Marbo district. Across Brehne Bay, a sawmill opened in 1863 at Moody Bay (now North Vancouver), marking the beginning of the logging industry in the Vancouver area. Later, another sawmill appeared in the area of what is now Broton Point, but because of the strong currents in the area, it was moved to the end of what is now Goya Street in 1867, and was renamed the Hearsting Mill, which became the core site of the future development of Vancouver. In 1867, Jack Dayton established a pub near the Hurstington Mill, and the settlement now known as Gastown gradually took shape around the pub.
The British Columbia Colonial government surveyed Gasstown in 1870 and designated a town site called Granville. It was named after the Earl of Guland Lake, then British Colonial Secretary. Due to its location as a deep-water harbour, the town of Granville was chosen by the Canadian Pacific Railway as the terminus of its railway. Vancouver was incorporated as a city on April 6, 1886, named after George Vancouver, and the south boundary at that time was only 16th Street. On June 13, the Great Vancouver Fire destroyed the city. The Vancouver Fire Department was established and reconstruction began immediately. Vancouver had about 1,000 residents in 1881, rising to 20,000 by 1900 and 100,000 by 1911.

Generation history
In 1792, Captain George Vancouver’s expedition ship sailed to Ballard Bay in search of the northwest passage. Beginning in 1862, European immigrants settled along the Gulf Coast, establishing the sawmill town of Granville.
In 1867, Jack Denton, nicknamed “Gassy”, came to the area and built a wooden saloon on Walter Street in Geisstown, now Geisstown, for the rest of the pioneers from all over the world, which was the origin of Vancouver’s first hotel. After the city moved west, Gaisstown’s economy began to decline.
After the opening of the Canadian Pacific Railway in 1886, Vancouver was officially incorporated as a city, and Jack Denton was elected as the first mayor. Jack Denton and his staff decided to name the city Vancouver in honour of the first explorer to arrive. The city was named after Vancouver in honor of the first explorer who arrived there. After that, ports and cities emerged as “gateways to the East.”
Between 1890 and 1910, the population increased from 13,000 to 100,000. After the opening of the Panama Canal in 1914, there were shipping shortcuts to Europe and Brazil, which promoted the prosperity of the port city.

Administrative division
Vancouver is divided into 10 boroughs and five townships: West Vancouver, North Vancouver, West Vancouver, East Vancouver, Port Moody, Burnaby, Ququitwoodland, Butte Harbor, Maple Ridge, New Westminster, Richmond, Delta, Langley, Surrey, and White Rock.
The city of Vancouver is based in East Vancouver.

Geographical environment
Location boundary
Vancouver is located on the western side of the peninsula between Brehne Bay and False Creek, covering an area of 115 square kilometers, with the city center at 49°13 ‘north latitude and 123°06’ west longitude. Vancouver consists of three areas: downtown, West End and Stanley Park. The area to the south and east of False Creek can be divided into Wimsey and Wimeast along Ontario Street. In addition, the city limits are divided into 23 communities. Bordered by the North branch of the Fraser River to the south and Brehne Bay and English Bay to the north, Vancouver is backed by the Coast Range and faces the Strait of Georgia.

Vancouver is surrounded by mountains on three sides and by the sea on one side, with flat terrain, the Rocky Mountains in the east and the Pacific Ocean in the west. No matter coming down from the mountains in the north and crossing the bay into the city of Vancouver, or crossing the Fraser River from the plain in the south to the downtown of Vancouver, you need to use multiple Bridges to cross the bay or river and enter the city center.

Vancouver has a mild climate all year round, with a temperate maritime climate. The temperature in summer is generally about 20 ° C, and the temperature in winter is above 0 ° C. Vancouver has an average maximum temperature of 6 ° C in January and 22 ° C in July, and its annual rainfall is half that of Tofino. There is little snow in winter, but there is still a lot of rainfall, which brings Vancouver the “rain capital of Canada”. In November, the temperature in Vancouver generally stays between 3 ° C and 9 ° C, warm and comfortable.
Spring comes early in this coastal city. In February or March, you can see crocuses and daffodils in full bloom.
Summer Vancouver’s summer climate is warm and comfortable, with daytime temperatures generally around 20 ° C from June to August.
Autumn Coastal areas have mild autumn weather, with summer weather often extending into October. In November, the morning air becomes cooler and leaves begin to fall.
Winter Vancouver has wet winters, but the climate is still mild. Snow-covered landscapes are rare, with the exception of the ski slopes in the mountains. From November to February, the average temperature ranges from 0℃ to 5℃.
Vancouver is located in the middle of the west coast of North America, the evaporation of the river is relatively small, but the flow is relatively large; The ecological environment of the river basin is better, and the sediment content of the river with high vegetation coverage rate is less. There are many lakes along the river, the flow is relatively stable; High latitude, glaciation period; The river flows from low latitudes to high latitudes, and there is a flood in early winter and early spring.

Natural resources
Plant resources
Vancouver’s forest covers an area of 60,000 square kilometers, about 36% of the city’s area. Commercial exploitation of forest resources has been going on for about 120 years, and agricultural and urban development land accounts for only about 2 per cent of Vancouver’s forested area, with the remaining 98 per cent still covered by trees. Vancouver’s annual timber harvest is 2,000 square kilometers, less than 1% of the forest, and the annual deforestation of the forest area only accounts for 0.33% of the forest area.

Animal resources
Vancouver is home to grizzly bears, Komodes, elk, moose, reindeer, goats, marmots, beavers, muskrats, coyotes, marten, cougars, ospreys, herons, swans, loons, eagles, owls, crows, ugly ducks, ducks, Robins, pine finches, chickadees, starlings, earwigs, rat women, squirrels, longoxen, ivy and mice. Marine life includes salmon, trout, leftmouth, rainbow trout, seals, otters, orcas, gray whales, porpoises, Pacific spotted dolphins, and minke whales.

Population nationality
According to the 2016 census, there are 632,000 people in metro Vancouver.
In its early years, English, Scottish and Irish residents made up the majority of the city’s population, while the culture and identity of the English community remained evident in some areas, notably South Gulland Lake and Crisdale. However, as Vancouver developed into a trading center on the Pacific coast, immigrants from different cultural backgrounds moved to the area, which gradually diversified the ethnic structure of Vancouver.
The signing of the Sino-British Joint Declaration in 1984 triggered a wave of immigration from Hong Kong to Canada, and Vancouver, Canada’s gateway to the Asia-Pacific region, also received a large number of Hong Kong immigrants, bringing major changes to the ethnic structure of the city. The arrival of Asian immigrants continues Vancouver’s role as a popular destination for immigrants. Other major Asian groups in the city include South Asians, Vietnamese, Filipinos, Indonesians, Koreans, Cambodians, and Japanese. The city also has a growing Latino population, mainly from countries such as Peru, Ecuador, El Salvador and Mexico.

Dharma chapter
Unlike other municipalities in British Columbia, Vancouver is governed by a special provincial statute, the Vancouver Act. This Act, passed in 1953, replaced the Vancouver Jurisdiction Act, 1921, and gave the municipality greater and more powers than those given by the Municipal Act of British Columbia.
Vancouver is governed by a 10-member City Council, which serves a three-year term. Vancouver does not have the same electoral districts as other cities in North America, and its city council members are therefore directly elected by all Vancouverites.
Vancouver is different from other cities in British Columbia in that legislation passed in 1953 under the Vancouver Charter, which replaced the City of Vancouver Act 1921, gives the city more and different powers than other communities under the City of British Columbia Act.
Since World War II, the government has been dominated by center-right non-party associations, although there were some major center-left events before 2008. In 2002, the NPA undermined the drug policy issue, and the League of Progressive Voters won on a harm reduction platform. Subsequently, the only legal safe injection site in North America opened for the city’s large number of intravenous heroin users.
Vancouver is made up of 11 Vancouver City councillors, nine board members and seven committee members, all of whom serve three-year terms. For Vancouver, all municipal elections are conducted on a large basis. Historically, at all levels of government, Vancouver’s more affluent west side voted along conservative or liberal lines, while eastern cities voted along the left. The results of the provincial elections in 2005 and the federal elections in 2006 proved this again.
Despite the polarization, some political consensus has emerged in Vancouver. Such as protecting city parks with a focus on bus rapid transit development rather than the highway system, ways to reduce illegal drug use, and a general focus on community development, these policies have gained broad support across Vancouver’s political spectrum.

Vancouver’s manufacturing, high-tech and service industries are very developed, while the resource industry, food industry, primary manufacturing and agriculture are also important pillars of Vancouver’s economy.
Primary industry
More than 40,000 hectares of forest cover about half of Vancouver’s land area. Forestry plays an important role in Vancouver’s civic economy, with the Vancouver Forest Service generating $2.21 billion in economic output and supporting more than 20,000 jobs in 2015. In addition, the forestry economy has also promoted the development of tourism, renewable energy and other related industries.
Vancouver is Canada’s largest export city of forestry products, accounting for about 16% of the country’s forestry trade, the main export products are softwood wood, newsprint, pulp, wood and so on. Among them, cork production ranks second in the world, accounting for 18.7% of the country’s total output, exports accounted for 36.6% of the country’s total exports; Newsprint and pulp production and exports ranked first in the world, accounting for 45% and 29% of world exports. Vancouver exports wood products to 180 countries around the world, with exports amounting to $32.7 billion in 2014, representing 7 per cent of the value of Canada’s goods exports.
Vancouver is a major distribution center for agricultural, forestry and mineral products in western Canada. Natural good port, winter does not freeze, the outer port of English Bay open, the inner port of Ballard Bay narrow and wide, extending from west to east 32 kilometers, the port area of 130 square kilometers, water depth of 12 meters or more, for ocean ships access. The port equipment is perfect, and the special grain terminal and container and bulk cargo terminal are lined up along the coast, up to more than 10 kilometers, and a huge grain warehouse is built. More than 40 per cent of the country’s grain exports are shipped in addition. In 1982, the port throughput was 51.65 million tons, ranking first in Canada; It mainly exports grain, wood, pulp, fish, flour, etc., and imports coffee, cocoa, sugar, tea, steel, cement, etc. There are regular flights to Asia, Oceania, Europe and Latin America. There are regular car ferries between Vancouver Island and Victoria and Nanaimo. Land transportation is convenient, with a number of railways and highways leading to all parts of the country, and direct links with cities such as Seattle, USA. The international airport, built on an island at the mouth of the north tributary of the Fraser River, is one of Canada’s major aviation centers.

Secondary industry
Vancouver is also the commercial and financial centre of western Canada. Wood processing industry has a long history and is the primary industrial sector; Other traditional sectors are aquatic processing, canned food, paper making, textiles, printing and so on. After the Second World War, oil refining, petrochemical, aluminum smelting, shipbuilding, aircraft manufacturing and other sectors were developed, and the industry tended to diversify. The city is powered by nearby hydroelectric plants and oil and natural gas transported via the Edmonton-Vancouver pipeline. Factories are mainly located along Ballard Bay and along the Falls River. Between the two major industrial areas in the north and south is the commercial district, with wide streets and high-rise buildings, where the city’s main administrative institutions, big banks, insurance companies, modern hotels and retail wholesale shops are concentrated. Residential areas are located on the periphery of the industrial area, east to Burnaby, south to Richmond, and north to west and North Vancouver. The Chinese community, the size of Chinatown second only to San Francisco. The famous Lions Gate Bridge and another bridge cross Ballard Bay and connect to North Vancouver. The Fraser Delta is rich in fertile land and agriculture, providing urban residents with abundant vegetables, fruits, milk, and so on.

Tertiary industry
In the service sector, Vancouver is the leader in technology and education. The service sector accounts for 80% of employment and manufacturing 18%. Vancouver is a standard service city. Vancouver’s service industry has a high international economic reputation. In addition, Vancouver’s aviation industry is also well developed, with about 25,000 jobs a year, most of which are related to the aviation industry, and the annual salary is 26% higher than that of the general service industry. The aviation industry is an export service industry, which not only serves Canada, but also serves the world.
Vancouver is the leader in the services sector, with others leading in technology, transportation, education, telecommunications, technology, film and construction. All of these industries have advantages in Vancouver.

Social undertaking

The Vancouver Education Board provides public education in Vancouver, including 74 elementary schools, 18 secondary schools and 7 adult education centres.
Vancouver is also home to the following famous universities, they are:
The University of British Columbia is ranked 51st in the QS World University Rankings 2020 and 3rd in the Canadian Medical University rankings 2020 by McLean Magazine.
Simon Fraser University was named the best comprehensive university in Canada by McLean’s Magazine in 2009.
Fairleigh Dickens University is a branch of Fairleigh Dickens University in Vancouver.
Emily Carr University of Art and Design, founded in 1925, is one of the oldest institutions of higher learning in British Columbia and one of the four independent art colleges in Canada. It is recognized worldwide as an institution of innovation and excellence in visual arts, film arts and design.
There are also other colleges, such as the British Columbia Institute of Technology, Vancouver Community College, Kwantlen University College, Langara College, Columbia College, and Douglas College.
Physical education
The Vancouver Canucks are part of the Northwest Division of the NHL’s Western Region and play in blue, green and white. The main stadium is the Rhodes Stadium with a capacity of 18,860 spectators. The current president and general manager of the Canucks are Mike Giles, coached by Alain Vigneault, captained by Henrik Sedin, and owned by Francisco Aquilini. According to the Vancouver Sun, the Vancouver Canucks are the most popular professional team in British Columbia. One of the 16 cities to host the 2026 FIFA World Cup.